A bird flying over the water in Keoladeo national Park

Keoladeo National Park: A Natural and Cultural Paradise

Keoladeo National Park, also known as Keoladeo Ghana National Park or Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, is a famous avifauna sanctuary in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India. It hosts thousands of birds, especially during the winter season, and is renowned for its large congregation of non-migratory resident breeding birds. It is also a major tourist attraction for birdwatchers and wildlife enthusiasts.

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History and Significance

Keoladeo National Park was created 250 years ago as a natural depression that was flooded after the Ajan Bund was constructed by Maharaja Suraj Mal, the ruler of the princely state of Bharatpur, between 1726 and 1763. The bund was created at the confluence of two rivers, the Gambhir and Banganga. The park was a hunting ground for the Maharajas of Bharatpur and their guests, who organised annual duck shoots in honour of the British viceroys. In one shoot alone in 1938, over 4,273 birds were killed by Lord Linlithgow, the then Viceroy of India.

The park was declared a protected sanctuary in 1971 and a national park in 1982. In 1981, it was designated as a Ramsar site under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. In 1985, it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the natural criterion (x), as an important wintering ground of Palaearctic migratory waterfowl and a habitat for large numbers of resident nesting birds.

UNESCO World Heritage Site

The sanctuary’s inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List underscores its global importance for biodiversity conservation. It is one of the few places where natural and cultural heritage are intertwined, with both elements contributing to its recognition. The park’s UNESCO designation highlights its historical significance and the impact of the Maharajas on its heritage.

Flora and Fauna

Keoladeo National Park covers an area of 2,873 hectares (7,100 acres) and is a mosaic of dry grasslands, woodlands, woodland swamps and wetlands. These diverse habitats support a rich biodiversity of plants and animals. Some 379 floral species and 50 species of fish have been recorded in the park. The park also harbours 13 species of snakes, 5 species of lizards, 7 amphibian species, 7 turtle species and a variety of other invertebrates.

The main attraction of the park is its avian diversity. Some 375 bird species have been recorded in the park, including five critically endangered, two endangered and six vulnerable species. Around 115 species of birds breed in the park, which includes 15 water bird species forming one of the most spectacular heronries of the region. The park is also famous for being the only known wintering site of the central population of the critically endangered Siberian Crane, which used to visit the park until 2002. Other globally threatened species that visit or reside in the park include the Greater Spotted Eagle, Imperial Eagle, Lesser Florican, Black-necked Stork, Red-headed Vulture and Sociable Lapwing.

Some of the common and conspicuous birds that can be seen in the park are:

  • Painted Stork
  • Black-headed Ibis
  • Eurasian Spoonbill
  • Asian Openbill
  • Darter
  • Cormorant
  • Grey Heron
  • Purple Heron
  • Night Heron
  • Little Egret
  • Great Egret
  • Cattle Egret
  • Indian Pond Heron
  • Black-crowned Night Heron
  • Glossy Ibis
  • Sarus Crane
  • Common Crane
  • Demoiselle Crane
  • Bar-headed Goose
  • Greylag Goose
  • Ruddy Shelduck
  • Gadwall
  • Northern Shoveler
  • Northern Pintail
  • Common Teal
  • Garganey
  • Mallard
  • Wigeon
  • Red-Crested Pochard
  • Common Pochard
  • Ferruginous Pochard
  • Tufted Duck
  • Comb Duck
  • Cotton Pygmy Goose
  • Lesser Whistling Duck

Tourism and Conservation

Keoladeo National Park is one of the most popular destinations for birdwatchers and wildlife lovers in India. The park attracts around 150,000 visitors every year, both domestic and foreign. The best time to visit the park is from October to March, when most of the migratory birds arrive. The park can be explored on foot, by bicycle or by rickshaw. There are several watchtowers and hides in the park that offer excellent views of the birds and other wildlife. There is also a museum and an interpretation centre in the park that provide information on the flora and fauna of the park.

The park faces several threats and challenges for its conservation. The main threat is the erratic water supply from the Ajan Bund reservoir outside the park boundary. The water level in the park depends on rainfall, canal water and groundwater pumping. Due to droughts, water diversion and overexploitation of groundwater, the park often suffers from water scarcity, which affects the wetland ecosystem and the bird population. The park also faces the problem of invasive species, such as Prosopis juliflora and water hyacinth, that degrade the habitat and reduce the native biodiversity. Other threats include poaching, grazing, firewood collection, pollution and human-wildlife conflict.

The park management has taken several measures to conserve and restore the park. These include:

  • Regulating the water supply from the Ajan Bund reservoir and ensuring a minimum water level in the park throughout the year.
  • Removing the invasive species and restoring the native vegetation.
  • Implementing anti-poaching and anti-grazing measures and enforcing the park rules and regulations.
  • Educating and involving the local communities and stakeholders in the conservation of the park.
  • Conducting regular monitoring and research on the flora and fauna of the park.
  • Collaborating with national and international organisations and agencies for technical and financial support.

Keoladeo National Park is a unique and valuable wetland that showcases the rich natural heritage of India. It is a living testimony of the harmonious coexistence of humans and nature. It is our duty and responsibility to protect and preserve this precious gift for the present and future generations.

Origin of Bird Species in Keoladeo National Park

The bird species found in Keoladeo National Park come from various regions, both within India and from distant parts of the world. The park’s unique position as a wintering and breeding ground attracts a wide range of bird species. Let’s explore the origin of these bird species:

Local Resident Birds

Many bird species in the park are residents of India and can be found in the region year-round. These include birds like the Indian peafowl, kingfishers, and various species of herons and egrets.

Migratory Birds from Northern India

Some bird species migrate within India itself, moving from colder regions in the northern part of the country to the relatively warmer climate of Bharatpur during the winter months. These birds include raptors like eagles and hawks.

Migratory Birds from Central Asia

Keoladeo National Park serves as a winter haven for migratory birds from Central Asia, including birds from Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. These birds fly south to escape the harsh winters in their breeding grounds. Species like the common crane are among these migrants.

Migratory Birds from Europe

The park also attracts migratory birds from Europe, such as the Eurasian spoonbill, various species of ducks, and geese. These birds undertake long journeys to reach the park’s wetlands during the winter.

Migratory Birds from Siberia

The Siberian crane, one of the park’s most famous guests, migrates from its breeding grounds in Siberia to Keoladeo National Park. This migration route covers a vast distance and is critical for the survival of this endangered species.

Migratory Birds from Other Parts of Asia

Some bird species in the park migrate from other parts of Asia, such as the greater flamingo and various species of waders like sandpipers and plovers.

The combination of wetlands, grasslands, and woodland habitats in the park, along with its strategic location along migratory routes, makes it an attractive stopover and wintering site for a diverse range of birds.

Influence of Maharajas on the Heritage of Keoladeo National Park

The historical presence of Maharajas has significantly influenced the heritage of Keoladeo National Park. Let’s explore their influence:

Origin as a Hunting Ground

The park’s history is intertwined with the hunting traditions of the Maharajas of Bharatpur. They recognized the area’s potential as a hunting ground due to its rich wetland ecosystem, which attracted a variety of waterfowl and game birds. This initial recognition laid the foundation for the park’s historical significance.

Conservation Efforts

While the Maharajas initially used the area for hunting, they also played a pivotal role in conserving it. They implemented sustainable hunting practices and established regulations to ensure the continued presence of birds and wildlife in the region. This early conservation effort was crucial for the park’s long-term preservation.

Legacy of Preservation

The legacy of the Maharajas’ conservation efforts lives on in Keoladeo National Park. Their actions set a precedent for the importance of protecting this unique wetland ecosystem. Today, the park continues to benefit from these early conservation practices.

Historical Structures

Within the park, visitors can still find historical structures, including hunting lodges and watchtowers, that were once used by the Maharajas. These structures serve as a reminder of the park’s royal heritage and the historical connection between human and natural history.

Cultural Significance

The presence of the Maharajas adds a cultural dimension to the park’s heritage. It highlights the intersection of natural beauty and human history, making Keoladeo National Park a unique destination where visitors can appreciate both aspects.

Tourism and Awareness

The park’s association with the Maharajas has contributed to its popularity as a tourist destination. Visitors are drawn not only to its natural beauty but also to the historical narratives associated with the region. This tourism has played a role in raising awareness about the park’s conservation needs and its ecological importance.

UNESCO World Heritage Status

The historical significance of Keoladeo National Park, including its association with the Maharajas, played a role in its designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. UNESCO recognized the park not only for its ecological value but also for its cultural and historical importance, highlighting the impact of the Maharajas on its heritage.

The influence of the Maharajas on Keoladeo National Park’s heritage is evident, adding to its cultural and historical significance.

Role of Keoladeo National Park in Wildlife Protection and Biodiversity Preservation

Keoladeo National Park plays a vital role in protecting wildlife and preserving biodiversity in India. Let’s explore its contributions:

Habitat Preservation

The park provides a protected and well-managed habitat for a diverse range of avian species and other wildlife. Its wetland ecosystems, grasslands, and woodlands offer refuge to both resident and migratory species, contributing to the overall preservation of these habitats in India.

Conservation of Endangered Species

Keoladeo National Park is a critical wintering ground for the endangered Siberian crane. The park’s conservation efforts have helped ensure the survival of this rare bird species, highlighting its role in safeguarding endangered wildlife.

Scientific Research

The park serves as a living laboratory for ornithologists, ecologists, and researchers. Studies conducted here contribute valuable insights into bird behavior, migration patterns, and wetland ecology, which can inform broader conservation efforts.

Public Awareness

Keoladeo National Park raises public awareness about the importance of wetland conservation and the need to protect biodiversity. Its popularity as a tourist destination attracts nature enthusiasts and birdwatchers, allowing them to experience and appreciate the richness of India’s natural heritage.

Ecotourism and Local Economy

The park supports local economies through ecotourism. It generates income and employment opportunities for local communities, fostering a sense of stewardship among residents who recognize the economic benefits of preserving the park.

Education and Outreach

Keoladeo National Park offers educational programs and interpretive centers that inform visitors about the significance of wetlands and wildlife conservation. These initiatives contribute to environmental education and awareness among the public.

Policy Influence

The success of Keoladeo National Park’s conservation efforts has influenced wildlife policies and conservation strategies at regional and national levels in India. It serves as a model for effective wetland protection and management.

Wetland Conservation

In a country facing increasing wetland degradation, Keoladeo National Park stands as an example of successful wetland conservation. It highlights the importance of preserving these crucial ecosystems, not only for birds but also for maintaining water quality, supporting aquatic life, and mitigating floods.

Global Significance

As a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Keoladeo National Park contributes to India’s international commitments to conserve biodiversity and protect culturally and ecologically significant areas. It demonstrates India’s commitment to global conservation efforts.

Keoladeo National Park’s contributions to wildlife protection and biodiversity preservation are significant, making it an invaluable natural asset in India.

Threats to Keoladeo National Park

Keoladeo National Park faces several threats that have the potential to impact its ecological balance and biodiversity. Let’s explore these threats:

Insufficient Replenishment of Water

The wetland habitats at Keoladeo National Park rely on a consistent supply of water to maintain their ecological balance. However, with the expansion of irrigated agriculture and urban demands elsewhere, water availability has become increasingly difficult. The park often struggles to secure the minimum annual water flow required to sustain the basic functioning of the site.

Inadequate Ecological Monitoring Programs

There is a lack of systematic and consistent ecological monitoring programs in the park, making it challenging to assess population trends over time. This poses a significant constraint to effective management and conservation efforts.

Invasive Alien Species

Several invasive alien species of plants and animals threaten the delicate ecological balance of the wetlands. The small mesquite tree, floating aquatic water hyacinth, and predatory African catfish are particularly concerning. Control of these invasive species is underway, but more work is needed to combat their negative impact on the park’s biodiversity.

Bird Mortality and Habitat Loss/ Degradation Along Migration Routes

Birds at Keoladeo National Park are affected by factors beyond the park’s control, such as drainage of wetlands in their summer range, dam constructions, hunting, and collisions with power lines during migration. These factors can impact breeding success and survival rates of migratory birds, ultimately affecting the park’s outstanding values.

Land-Use Change and Expansion of Irrigated Agriculture

Adjacent areas to Keoladeo National Park have experienced significant land-use changes, including massive expansion of irrigated rice cultivation. The impact of these changes on birds in the park is unknown, but it has the potential to affect water availability and create other ecological challenges.

Uncontrolled Grazing of Livestock

Some areas within the park are heavily grazed and trampled by cattle brought in by local communities. This can lead to habitat degradation and disrupt the park’s ecological balance.

Disturbance of Wildlife by Visitors

Keoladeo National Park’s popularity as a visitor attraction for bird watching and photography can cause disturbance to the birds and other wildlife. While visitor access to most of the park is limited, there is a need for better restrictions and facilities to minimize disturbance.

These threats highlight the challenges faced by Keoladeo National Park in maintaining its ecological balance and biodiversity.

Exploring Keoladeo National Park: A Visual Journey

Keoladeo National Park offers a visual feast for visitors, showcasing the diverse natural beauty and wildlife found within its boundaries. Let’s take a virtual journey through the park and explore its unique habitats and captivating wildlife:

Grasslands and Woodlands

As you enter the park, you will be greeted by expansive grasslands and scattered woodlands. These habitats provide essential feeding grounds for herbivores and nesting sites for ground-nesting birds. The grasslands are home to various mammal species, including spotted deer, nilgai (blue bull), and sambar deer.

Wetlands and Water Bodies

The heart of Keoladeo National Park lies in its wetlands and water bodies. These include shallow lakes, ponds, marshes, and mudflats. The wetlands support a diverse range of waterfowl, including ducks, geese, coots, pelicans, and waders. The presence of the rare Siberian crane during its winter migration is a sight to behold.

Historical Structures and Cultural Significance

As you explore the park, you will come across historical structures that were once used by the Maharajas of Bharatpur. These hunting lodges and watchtowers add to the cultural significance of the park, reminding visitors of its rich history and the intersection of human and natural heritage.

Bird Observation Points and Trails

Keoladeo National Park offers well-maintained trails, bird hides, and observation points strategically located for birdwatching enthusiasts. These facilities allow visitors to observe and photograph the diverse bird species that call the park home. From colorful kingfishers to majestic herons, each bird offers a unique sighting.

Other Wildlife Encounters

While birds take center stage at Keoladeo National Park, other wildlife species also contribute to its ecological richness. Keep an eye out for rhesus macaques, jackals, and the iconic peafowl. The park’s diverse ecosystems support a variety of life, creating a harmonious coexistence of species.

Conservation Challenges and Efforts

During your journey, you may notice some of the conservation challenges faced by the park, such as invasive plant species and water scarcity. However, you will also witness the ongoing efforts to combat these challenges. Local communities and conservation organizations work hand in hand to control invasive species, restore habitats, and raise awareness about the park’s ecological importance.

A Call for Responsible Tourism

As a visitor, it’s essential to be mindful of your impact on the park’s wildlife and habitats. Respect the park’s regulations and minimize disturbance to the birds and other wildlife. By practicing responsible tourism, you contribute to the long-term preservation and sustainability of Keoladeo National Park.

Plan Your Visit to Keoladeo National Park

If you’re inspired to experience the natural and cultural wonders of Keoladeo National Park, here’s some practical information to help you plan your visit:

Location and Accessibility

Keoladeo National Park is located in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, approximately 200 kilometers south of Delhi. It is easily accessible by road and rail, with regular train and bus services connecting to major cities in India.

Entry Permits and Fees

To enter the park, visitors must obtain an entry permit, which can be purchased at the park’s entrance. The fees for entry permits vary for domestic and international visitors. Additional fees may apply for guided tours and photography.

Best Time to Visit

The best time to visit Keoladeo National Park is during the winter months, from November to February, when the park is teeming with migratory birds. The weather is pleasant, making it ideal for birdwatching and exploring the park’s trails.

Guided Tours and Birdwatching

To enhance your experience at Keoladeo National Park, consider joining a guided tour or hiring a local birdwatching expert. They can provide valuable insights into the park’s wildlife, behavior, and conservation efforts.

Accommodation and Facilities

Bharatpur town offers a range of accommodation options, including hotels, guesthouses, and eco-resorts. The town also has restaurants and facilities to cater to visitors’ needs. It is advisable to book accommodation in advance, especially during the peak season.

Responsible Tourism Guidelines

When visiting Keoladeo National Park, follow responsible tourism guidelines. Respect the park’s regulations, stay on designated trails, and avoid disturbing wildlife. Keep noise levels low and dispose of waste properly to minimize your impact on the park’s delicate ecosystem.


Keoladeo National Park, also known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary, is a natural and cultural paradise in Rajasthan, India. Its rich history, avian diversity, wetland ecosystems, and conservation efforts make it a must-visit destination for wildlife enthusiasts and history buffs. As you explore the park’s grasslands, wetlands, and woodlands, you’ll witness the harmonious coexistence of wildlife and human history. By practicing responsible tourism, you contribute to the long-term preservation and sustainability of this remarkable UNESCO World Heritage Site. Plan your visit to Keoladeo National Park and immerse yourself in its captivating blend of natural beauty and cultural heritage.

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