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History of Mewar: Ancient names, Guhila dynasty and inscriptions

Mewar is a region in present-day Rajasthan state of India, which has a rich and glorious history.

Mewar was ruled by the Guhila dynasty, also known as the Guhilas of Mewar, from the 8th to the 14th century CE. The Guhilas were one of the most prominent Rajput clans, who fought bravely against the invaders and defended their homeland.

Mewar was ruled by the Guhil dynasty. Suryavanshi Guhil were the Hindu rulers. Among the 24 branches of this dynasty, the Guhils of Mewar were prominent. This is the longest ruling dynasty in the world.

According to the Muslim historian Muhammad Qasim Farishtathe Rana of Mewar has been ruling since very ancient times and their kingdom existed even before the origin of the Muslim religion.

In this article, we will explore the ancient names of Mewar, the origin and achievements of the Guhila dynasty, and the inscriptions that provide valuable information about their history.

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Introduction to Mewar

Mewar is derived from the Sanskrit word “Medapata”, which was the ancient name of the region. The word “pata or pataka” means an administrative unit, and “Meda” was the name of a tribe or a clan that inhabited the region.

Mewar is also known as Udaipur, after the city of Udaipur, which was founded by Maharana Udai Singh II in the 16th century.

Mewar is surrounded by the Aravalli hills on the west and south, and the Banas and Chambal rivers on the north and east. Mewar has a diverse geography, ranging from plains and valleys to hills and forests.

Mewar has been a centre of culture, art, literature, and religion, and has produced many famous personalities, such as Maharana Pratap, Meera Bai, Rana Kumbha, and Rana Sanga.

Ancient names of Mewar

Mewar has been known by various names in different periods of history. Some of the ancient names of Mewar are:

  • Aharik: This name is derived from Ahar, which was the capital of the Guhilas from the 10th to the 13th century. Ahar is located near Udaipur, and is famous for its archaeological museum and cenotaphs.
  • Arbudanchal: This name is derived from Arbuda, which is another name of Mount Abu, the highest peak of the Aravalli range. Arbuda was also the name of a serpent-god, who was worshipped by the Guhilas.
  • Girwa: This name is derived from Girivar, which means the hill region. Girwa was the name of the district that included Udaipur and its surrounding areas.
  • Kokila: This name is derived from Kokila, which means the cuckoo bird. Kokila was the name of a forest that covered a large part of Mewar.
  • Sisoda: This name is derived from Sisoda, which was the village of the founder of the Sisodia branch of the Guhila dynasty. Sisoda is located near Nathdwara, and is considered the ancestral home of the Sisodias.

Some other names of Mewar:

  1. Medpat
  2. Pragwaat
  3. Shivi Janpad

Guhil

Guhil was the founder of the Guhil dynasty. He is believed to be the son of Shiladitya of Valabhi [Gujarat]. According to “Colonel James Tod” Guhil’s mother’s name was Pushpavati. According to Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, he ruled in Mewar in 566 AD (on the basis of Samoli inscription). In 1869 AD, 2000 silver coins of Guhil were received from Agra.

According to some other legend, Guhil was born from a fire-pit (yajna-kunda) at Mount Abu, and was adopted by a Brahmin named “Harita“. Guhil was a brave and adventurous youth, who killed a tiger and a Bhil chief, and established his rule over the region. However, there is no historical evidence to support this legend, and the earliest mention of Guhil is found in the 8th century CE.

Samoli inscription [646 AD]

The Samoli inscription is the oldest record of the Guhila dynasty, and is dated to 646 CE (703 VS). It was discovered at Samoli village, near Bhilwara, and is written in Sanskrit and Prakrit languages.

The inscription mentions a king named Guhaditya, who is identified with Guhil, and his son Bhoja, who made a grant of land to a Brahmin named Vishnudatta. The inscription also mentions the Mori (Maurya) kings as the overlords of the Guhilas, and the titles of the Guhila kings, such as Maharaja and Ranaka.

This is the inscription of Shiladitya who is the fifth descendant of Guhil [Guhil>Bhoj>Mahendra>Nag>Shiladitya]. This is the oldest record of Guhil dynasty, This record determines the time of the Guhil dynasty.

According to this inscription, Jaitak Mahattar, the head of the Mahajan community, who came from Vatnagar [Sirohi], had built the temple of Aranyavasini Devi [Jawar Mata] in Aranyakgiri. This temple used to be filled with 18 types of singers. Jaitak had entered the fire at a place called ‘Devbuk‘. This inscription also throws light on the mining industry of Jawar [Agara].

Bappa Rawal (Kal Bhoj) [734-753]

Bappa Rawal, also known as Kal Bhoj, was the most famous and illustrious king of the Guhila dynasty. He was the son of Mahendra, and the grandson of Bhoja. He ascended the throne at a young age, after his father was killed by a rival chief.

Bappa Rawal expanded his kingdom by conquering the neighbouring territories, and established his capital at Chittor. He also formed an alliance with the Rashtrakuta king Dantidurga, and participated in the Arab invasion of Sindh.

Bappa Rawal defeated the Arab governor Junaid, and liberated the regions of Saurashtra and Malwa from the Arab rule. He also patronised the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries.

According to Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, its real name was Kalbhoj. He was a disciple of Harit Rishi. With the blessings of sage Harit, in 734 AD, after defeating Manmori, he captured Chittor [according to Rajprashasti], its capital was Nagda [Udaipur]. Built the temple of Eklingji [Lakulish] in Kailashpuri [Udaipur].

The rulers of Mewar considered themselves as Diwan of Eklingji. After defeating the Muslim army, he went to Ghazni (Afghanistan) and removed the ruler Salim there and made his nephew the king. Historian Chintamani Vinayak Vaidya compared it to ‘Charles Martel’ [the French general who first defeated the Muslims in Europe]. Its 115 grain gold coin has been received. The city of Pakistan was named Rawalpindi because of Bapa’s military base.

The great King Bappa Rawal (Kal Bhoj) [734-753]

Bapa’s titles

Bappa Rawal assumed various titles to assert his sovereignty and prestige. Some of his titles are:

  • Guhila: This was the name of his clan and dynasty, which he used to claim his descent from the fire-born Guhil.
  • Sri Harita: This was the name of his foster-father, who was a Brahmin of the Harita gotra. Bappa Rawal used this name to show his respect and gratitude to his adoptive father.
  • Kal Bhoj: This was the name of his grandfather, who was the son of Guhil. Bappa Rawal used this name to honour his ancestor, and to assert his legitimacy as the heir of the Guhila dynasty.
  • Bappa: This was a nickname given to him by his subjects, which means the father or the protector. Bappa Rawal used this name to show his affection and benevolence to his people.
  • Ranak: This was a title of the Guhila kings, which means a warrior or a hero. Bappa Rawal used this title to highlight his military prowess and valour.
  • Maharajadhiraja: This was a title of the imperial kings, which means the king of kings. Bappa Rawal used this title to declare his independence and supremacy over the other kings.

Some other titles:

  1. Hindu Surya
  2. Rajguru
  3. Chakkkve [conqueror of all four directions]

अल्लट

Allat, also known as Allata or Alhana, was the son of Bappa Rawal, and the successor of the Guhila dynasty. He continued the expansion and consolidation of his father’s kingdom, and fought against the Pratihara king Nagabhata II, the Chahamana king Chandraraja, and the Chalukya king Vikramaditya II.

He also maintained friendly relations with the Rashtrakuta king Govinda III, and the Kalachuri king Kokalla II. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and donated land and wealth to them. He also built a temple of Shiva at Nagda, which was his ancestral capital.

He made Āhad [Udaipur] his second capital and here Varaha [Vishnu temple] was built and bureaucracy [administrative system] was established in Mewar [also known as Saraneshwar Prashasti].

According to Shaktikumar’s inscription [977 AD] obtained from Atpur [Āhad], Allat’s mother Mahalakshmi was of Rathod [Rashtrakut] dynasty and Allat married Hoon princess Hariya Devi and Hariya Devi established a village named Harshpur.

Another Name

  • ĀluRawal

Allat was also known as Alhana, which was a variant of his name. Alhana was the name used by the Jain writers, who praised him for his generosity and piety. Alhana was also the name of his grandson, who was the son of Khuman II.

Saraneshwar Prashasti [953 AD]

The Saraneshwar Prashasti is an inscription of the Guhila dynasty, which is dated to 953 CE (1010 VS). It was discovered at Saraneshwar village, near Jalore, and is written in Sanskrit language.

The inscription records a grant of land by Allat to a Brahmin named Vishvavasu, who was a priest of the Saraneshwar/Varaha temple. The inscription also gives a genealogy of the Guhila kings, from Guhil to Allat, and praises their achievements and virtues.

The inscription also mentions the titles of Allat, such as Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Paramabhattaraka, and Ranak.

This prashasti, obtained from the Shivalaya named Saraneshwar in Udaipur, was earlier located in the Varaha temple of Āhad. In this prashasti, there is mention of his mother Mahalakshmi and his son Narvahan. In this, the names of the administrative officers of Allat are mentioned along with their posts.

The names of the donors of the Varaha temple have also been given. Information about the tax system and the maintenance system of the temple is obtained. At that time traders from Karnataka, Madhyadesh, Lat [part of Gujarat], Takk [part of Punjab] also lived in Āhad. The Varaha temple was built by Uttam Sutradhar Agrat and the scribes of the prashasti were Kayastha Pal and Velak.

Jaitra Singh [1213 – 1253 AD]

Jaitra Singh was the son of Samar Singh, and the king of the Guhila dynasty. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who was killed by the Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Jaitra Singh faced the invasions of the Delhi Sultanate, and resisted them with courage and skill.

He also fought against the Paramara king Arjunavarman, and the Chahamana king Someshvara. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Jaitra.

In the Battle of Bhootala [Udaipur] [1227 AD], Jaitra Singh defeated Sultan Iltutmish of Delhi. This information is available from Jaisingh Suri’s book Hammir Madmardan. In this, Iltutmish has been called Hammir. Iltutmish’s returning army ravaged Nagda, so Jaitra Singh snatched Chittor [from Parmars] and established it as the capital.

Dr. Dashrath Sharma considers his reign as the golden period of medieval Mewar. According to Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, during the time of the Sultans of Delhi’s slave dynasty, Jaitra Singh was the most powerful among the kings of Mewar, whose bravery has been praised even by his opponents.

Rawal Jaitra Singh

Jai Singh Suri

Jai Singh Suri was the name of Jaitra Singh, as given by the Jain writers. Jai Singh Suri was a devout Jain, who followed the Svetambara sect. He was a disciple of the Jain monk Jinaprabha Suri, who was a renowned scholar and poet.

Jaisingh Suri, the Baghel Solanki of Gholka [Gujarat] was favored by Rana Virdhaval’s ministers [Vastupal-Tejpal] and has praised Virdhaval in the play Hammir Madmardan. Its other composition is ‘Vastupala Prashasti‘.

Ratna Singh [1302-1303 AD]

Ratna Singh was the son of Samarasimha, and the king of the Guhila dynasty. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who was killed by the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Ratna Singh faced the invasion of Alauddin Khilji, who attacked Mewar with a large army.

Ratna Singh defended his kingdom with bravery and determination, but was ultimately defeated and killed by the Sultan. Ratna Singh’s death marked the end of the Guhila dynasty, and the beginning of the Sisodia branch of the Guhilots.

In 1303 AD, Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi attacked Mewar.

Reasons for Alauddin Khilji’s attack on Mewar

Alauddin Khilji was the Sultan of Delhi, who ruled from 1296 to 1316 CE. He was an ambitious and ruthless ruler, who wanted to conquer the whole of India. He attacked Mewar for various reasons, such as:

  • Political: Alauddin Khilji wanted to expand his empire, and subjugate the Rajput kingdoms. He considered Mewar as the most powerful and prestigious Rajput kingdom, and wanted to annex it to his dominion. He also wanted to secure his western frontier, and prevent any possible alliance between the Rajputs and the Mongols.
  • Economic: Alauddin Khilji wanted to loot the wealth and resources of Mewar, which was a prosperous and fertile region. He also wanted to impose heavy taxes and tributes on the people of Mewar, and exploit them for his revenue.
  • Personal: Alauddin Khilji was attracted by the beauty and fame of Rani Padmini, the wife of Ratna Singh. He had heard about her from a renegade Rajput named Malik Kafur, who had joined his service. He wanted to capture her and make her his concubine.

Chittor’s first “Sākā”

Chittor’s first “Sākā” was the heroic and tragic event that took place in 1303 CE, when Alauddin Khilji besieged the fort of Chittor, the capital of Mewar. The word “Sākā” means a sacrifice or a martyrdom, and refers to the act of self-immolation or mass suicide by the Rajputs, to avoid capture or dishonour by the enemy.

At the time of this attack, Chittor’s first “Sākā” took place, under which Rani Padmini along with 1600 other women committed Jauhar and Ratan Singh committed saffron along with his generals Gora and Badal.

What is “Sākā”

Saka | Jauhar

Sākā is a famous practice of Rajasthan (Place of Kings and Forts), in which men dressed in saffron used to pounce on the enemy army with the determination to die when they saw women deciding to jump into the flame of Jauhar.

Siege/Slaughter/Massacre of Chittorgarh [1303 AD]

The siege/slaughter/massacre of Chittorgarh was the culmination of the invasion of Mewar by Alauddin Khilji. The Sultan laid siege to the fort of Chittor, which was defended by Ratna Singh and his loyal Rajput warriors. The siege lasted for several months, and the Rajputs resisted the attacks of the Sultan with courage and skill. However, the Sultan used various tactics and strategies, such as mining, catapults, and treachery, to breach the fort walls. He also offered to spare the lives of the Rajputs, if they surrendered Rani Padmini to him. The Rajputs refused to comply, and decided to fight till the end.

According to some accounts, the Rajputs devised a plan to deceive the Sultan, and send a group of warriors disguised as women, to assassinate him. They requested the Sultan to allow Rani Padmini and her companions to visit him in his camp, as a gesture of surrender. The Sultan agreed, and sent a convoy of palanquins to the fort. However, the palanquins were occupied by the Rajput warriors, who carried weapons and explosives. They reached the Sultan’s camp, and attacked him and his guards. They killed many of the Sultan’s men, but failed to kill the Sultan himself, who escaped with the help of his loyalists.

The Sultan was enraged by this attempt on his life, and ordered a final assault on the fort. He stormed the fort with his army, and massacred the Rajput defenders. The Rajput warriors fought valiantly, and killed many of the Sultan’s soldiers, but were outnumbered and overpowered. They fell one by one, until none was left alive. Meanwhile, the Rajput women, led by Rani Padmini, performed the “Sākā”, or the ritual of self-immolation. They entered a huge pyre, and set themselves on fire, to avoid falling into the hands of the Sultan. The Sultan entered the fort, and found nothing but ashes and corpses. He was deprived of his victory and his prize, and left the fort with disappointment and regret.

On 25 August 1303 AD, Allauddin Khilaji captured Chittor and massacred 30,000 innocent citizens the next day. He handed over Chittor to his son Khija Khan and changed its name to Khijabad. Sultan’s court historian Amir Khusro describes this attack in his book Khazain-ul-Futuh (Tarikh-i-Alai). Chittor’s name Khizabad is found in the Persian inscription of Dhaibi Pir’s Dargah of Chittor in 1325 AD.

Khiz Khan got a bridge built over the Gambhiri river. He got a tomb built in the foothills of Chittor, in whose Persian inscription (1310 AD) Alauddin Khilji has been called the second Alexander, the shadow of God and the protector of the world.

Later, Chittor was handed over to Maldev Songara [He was the brother of Kanhaddev Sonagara, the ruler of Jalore. Maldev Songara after the fall of Jalore (1311 AD) went to the service of the Sultan Allauddin Khilaji.]

Who was Rani Padmini?

Rani Padmini | Rani Padmawat

Rani Padmini, also known as Padmavati, was the wife of Ratna Singh, and the queen of Mewar. She was renowned for her beauty, intelligence, and courage. She was the daughter of Gandharva Sena, the king of Singhal (Sri Lanka), and was married to Ratna Singh through a swayamvara, or a self-choice ceremony.

She accompanied her husband to Chittor, and became the beloved of the people. She was also a devout Hindu, and worshipped the goddess Bhavani.

She was the main cause of Alauddin Khilji’s attack on Mewar, and the leader of the first “Sākā” of Chittor. She is revered as a symbol of honour, sacrifice, and patriotism by the Rajputs and the Indians.

In the Padmavat epic written in Awadhi language by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in 1540 AD, Rani Padmini was described as the princess of Sinhala Island (Sri Lanka). According to this, Padmini’s father Gandharvasen and Mother was Champavati. A Brahmin named Raghav Chetan had told Alauddin Khilji about the beauty of Padmini.

Abul Fazal (Akbarnama), Farishta (Gulshan-e-Ibrahimi), Haji Udveer (Zafarulwali), Colonel Tod, Italian traveler Manuchi (Storio de Mogor), Muhnaut Nainasi, Dashrath Sharma have also accepted this story with some manipulations. Suryamall Mausan has not accepted it.

Hammir [1326-64 AD]

Hammir, also known as Hammira or Hamir, was the son of Ratan Singh II, and the founder of the Sisodia branch of the Guhilots. He was the nephew of Ratna Singh, and the cousin of Lakshman Singh, who was the last king of the Guhila dynasty.

He ascended the throne after the death of Lakshman Singh, who was killed by the Delhi Sultan Mubarak Shah Khilji. Hammir re-established the Rajput rule in Mewar, and recovered the fort of Chittor from the Sultanate.

He also expanded his kingdom by conquering the neighbouring territories, and fought against the Delhi Sultans Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firuz Shah Tughlaq.

He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Hammira.

Points you need to know about Hammir –

  • It was a feudatory of Sisoda (Rajsamand). The Sisodia branch of Guhil dynasty started from here. He used the title Rana. (Ratan Singh Rawal was the last ruler of the branch)
  • In 1326 AD, Hammir defeated Maldev Sonagara’s son Banveer/Jaisa and captured Chittor.
  • Hammir defeated Muhammad bin Tughluq in the battle of Singoli (Banswada).
  • Colonel James Tod has called it a strong Hindu. In the Kumbhalgarh Prasasti, it is called Visham Ghati Panchanan. In Rasikpriya, he has been called Veer Raja. It is also called the savior of Mewar.
  • He built the temple of Barvadi (Annapurna Mata) in Chittor. This is the presiding deity of the Guhil dynasty of Mewar. (Ban Mata is the Kuldevi of the Guhil dynasty).

Who was Hammir? Actually…

Hammir was actually the son of Ratan Singh II, who was the brother of Ratna Singh. Ratan Singh II had fled to the hills of Sisoda, after the fall of Chittor. He married a princess of the Chauhan clan, and had a son named Hammir.

Hammir grew up in Sisoda, and became the leader of the Sisodia branch of the Guhilots. He claimed his descent from Bappa Rawal, and asserted his right to the throne of Mewar. He gathered a large army of Rajputs, and challenged the Sultanate. He defeated the Sultan’s governor in Malwa, and captured the fort of Mandu.

He then marched towards Chittor, and besieged the fort. He fought bravely against the Sultan’s forces, and recaptured the fort after a fierce battle. He entered the fort, and performed the rites of coronation. He declared himself as the king of Mewar, and the successor of the Guhila dynasty. He restored the glory and honour of the Rajputs, and became the hero of Mewar.

Hammir’s uncle Ajay Singh made Hammir the vassal of Sisoda. Ajay Singh’s son Sajjan Singh went to South India, And Shivaji was his descendant.

Maharana Lakha (Laksh Singh) – [1382-1421 AD]

Maharana Lakha, also known as Laksh Singh, was the son of Hammir, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty.

He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who was killed by the Delhi Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah Tughlaq. Maharana Lakha consolidated his father’s kingdom, and defended it from the attacks of the Delhi Sultanate, the Gujarat Sultanate, and the Malwa Sultanate.

He also extended his kingdom by conquering the regions of Idar, Abu, Sirohi, and Jalore. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Laksha.

  • Silver mine was found in Javar (Udaipur).
  • A Banjare had got the Pichola (Udaipur) lake constructed. [Banjare – namad Businessman]
  • Natni’s platform” is built near Lake Pichola.
  • Kumbha Hada (brother-in-law of Rana Lakha) was killed while protecting the fake Bundi.
  • Marwar’s Raja Chunda’s daughter Hansabai was married to Mewar’s Rana Lakha.
  • At this time Lakha’s son Chunda vowed that he would not be the next king of Mewar. Rather, Hansabai’s son would be the next king of Mewar.
  • Chunda is called “Bhishma of Mewar”.
  • Because of Chunda’s sacrifice, he was given many privileges, like –
    • 4 out of 16 first class places of Mewar were given to Chunda, Salumber was also involved in it. Salumber (Udaipur) was the biggest place.
    • Salumbar’s chieftain will crown the king of Mewar.
    • The chieftain of Salumber will be the commander of the army of Mewar.
    • Along with the Rana, the chieftain of Salumbar will also sign all the gazettes of Mewar.
    • In the absence of the Rana, the chieftain of Salumbar would take care of the capital.

Maharana Mokal [1421-33 AD]

Maharana Mokal, also known as Mokal Singh, was the son of Lakha, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty.

He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who was killed by his brother Chacha. Maharana Mokal continued the expansion and consolidation of his father’s kingdom, and fought against the Gujarat Sultanate, the Malwa Sultanate, and the Delhi Sultanate.

He also maintained friendly relations with the Gondwana kingdom, and the Bahmani kingdom. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Mokala.

  • Father – Maharana Lakha (Laksh Singh) – [1382-1421 AD]
  • Mother – Hansa Bai
  • First patron – Chunda
  • Due to mistrust of Hansabai, Chunda left Mewar and went to Malwa. (Malwa’s Sultan – Hoshangshah)
  • Second patron – Ranmal
  • Mokal built the parkota (wall) of the Ekling temple.
  • Reconstructed Samidweshwar temple in Chittor.
  • Earlier this temple was called Tribhuvan Narayan Temple and it was built by Bhoj Parmar.
  • Built the temple of Dwarikanath (Vishnu) with water body in Chittor.
  • For the attainment of heaven by Queen Gaurambika of his Baghela dynasty, Shringi Rishi got a step well constructed at the place.
  • Got the Baghela pond constructed in the name of his brother Bagh Singh.
  • In 1433 AD, Ahmed Shah of Gujarat attacked Mewar. At this time, Uncle and Mera and Mahpa Panwar killed Mokal at a place called Jilwara (Rajsamand).

Hastikundi inscription [907 AD]

The Hastikundi inscription is an inscription of the Sisodia dynasty, which is dated to 907 CE (964 VS). It was discovered at Hastikundi village, near Udaipur, and is written in Sanskrit language.

The inscription records a grant of land by Maharana Mokal to a Brahmin named Vishnusvamin, who was a priest of the Hastikunda temple. The inscription also gives a genealogy of the Sisodia kings, from Bappa Rawal to Mokal, and praises their achievements and virtues.

The inscription also mentions the titles of Mokal, such as Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Paramabhattaraka, and Ranak.

Shringi Rishi inscription [1428 AD]

This inscription was found near Ekling ji in Udaipur which is written in Sanskrit language. This record is of the time of Mewar Maharana Mokal. According to this record, Mokal for the salvation of his Baghela queen Gourambika, he got a “kund” (well) constructed here.

The Shringi Rishi inscription is another inscription of the Sisodia dynasty, which is dated to 1428 CE (1485 VS). It was discovered at Shringi Rishi temple, near Kumbhalgarh, and is written in Sanskrit language.

The inscription records a grant of land by Maharana Mokal to a Brahmin named Shringi, who was a priest of the Shringi Rishi temple. The inscription also gives a genealogy of the Sisodia kings, from Bappa Rawal to Mokal, and praises their achievements and virtues. The inscription also mentions the titles of Mokal, such as Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Paramabhattaraka, and Ranak.

From this record we get information about the rulers of Mewar from Hammir to Mokal. According to this, Hammir won Jeelwara, Idar, Palanpur and defeated the Bhils. Kshetra Singh defeated Amishah, the governor of Malwa. Lax Singh made Kashi, Prayag and Gaya tax free.

Mokal defeated Firoz Khan of Nagaur and Ahmed Shah of Gujarat and he got the ramparts of the Ekling temple and three gates built here. Mokal had done 25 tuladans, one of which was done at the Varaha temple in Pushkar. Mokal had received permission from Guru Trilochan to build this “kund” (well) and participated in the consecration ceremony along with his other queen Mayapuri.

  • Composer – Kaviraj Vanivilas Yogishwar
  • Engraver – Fana

Maharana Kumbha [1433 – 1468 AD]

Maharana Kumbha, also known as Kumbhakarna, was the son of Mokal, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who was assassinated by his brother Chacha and his son Uda.

Maharana Kumbha was one of the greatest and most powerful kings of Mewar, and is regarded as the “Plato of Jains” and the “Abul Fazl of Rajputs”. He expanded and consolidated his kingdom, and defended it from the attacks of the Delhi Sultanate, the Gujarat Sultanate, the Malwa Sultanate, and the Bahmani Sultanate.

He also formed alliances with the Gondwana kingdom, the Tomara kingdom, and the Rathore kingdom. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He was also a scholar and a poet, and wrote many works on religion, philosophy, history, and music. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Kumbha.

  • Father – Mokal
  • Mother – Saubhagyavati Parmar
Maharana Kumbha
  • Patron – Ranmal
  • With the help of Ranmal, Rana Kumbha avenged the murder of his father.
  • Ranmal’s influence increased in the Mewar court and he killed Raghavdev (Chunda’s brother, the leader of the Sisodias.)
  • Hansabai called back Chunda from Malwa.
  • Ranmal was killed with the help of Bharmali.
  • Ranmal’s son Jodha ran away and settled near Bikaner.
  • Chunda captured Mandaur (Jodhpur), the capital of the Rathores.

Treaty of Aanwal-Baanwal, Jodha+Kumbha [1453 AD]

The treaty of Aanwal-Baanwal was a treaty of friendship and alliance between Maharana Kumbha and Rao Jodha, the founder of the Rathore dynasty of Marwar.

The treaty was signed in 1453 CE (1510 VS), at the villages of Aanwal and Baanwal, near Jalore. The treaty was a result of the mutual respect and admiration between the two Rajput kings, who had fought against the Sultan of Malwa, Mahmud Khilji.

The treaty also marked the end of the long-standing rivalry and hostility between the Sisodias and the Rathores, who had been at war since the time of Bappa Rawal. The treaty also established the boundaries and the rights of the two kingdoms, and pledged to support each other in times of need.

  • Sojat (Pali) was made the border of Marwar and Mewar.
  • Mandore was given back to Jodha.
  • Kumbha’s son Raimal was married to Jodha’s daughter Shringar Kanwar.

Battle of Sarangpur (Madhya Pradesh) [1437 AD] | Kumbha v/s Mahmud Khilji (Malwa)

The battle of Sarangpur was a decisive battle between Maharana Kumbha and Mahmud Khilji, the Sultan of Malwa.

The battle took place in 1437 CE (1494 VS), at Sarangpur, near Ujjain, in Madhya Pradesh. The battle was a result of the aggression and expansion of Mahmud Khilji, who had invaded and annexed the regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh. He also attacked Mewar, and besieged the fort of Mandalgarh.

Maharana Kumbha marched to the rescue of the fort, and met the Sultan at Sarangpur. The battle was fierce and bloody, and lasted for several hours. The Rajput army fought with courage and skill, and inflicted heavy casualties on the Sultan’s army. The Sultan himself was wounded and fled from the battlefield.

Maharana Kumbha emerged victorious, and liberated the fort of Mandalgarh. He also captured the fort of Sarangpur, and annexed the region of Malwa to his kingdom.

  • Reasons –
    • Mahmud Khilji gave shelter to the killers of Mokal.
    • Kumbha had captured Sarangpur by giving military help to Mahmud Khilji rebel.
    • Empire expansion ambitions of Kumbha and Mahmud.
  • Kumbha won the battle of Sarangpur and arrested Muhammad Khilji, in the joy of this victory, Rana Kumbha got the Vijay Stambh built.

Treaty of Champaner [1556 AD] | Mahmud Khilji (Malwa) + Qutubuddin Shah (Gujarat)

The treaty of Champaner was a treaty of peace and alliance between Mahmud Khilji, the Sultan of Malwa, and Qutubuddin Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat.

The treaty was signed in 1556 CE (1613 VS), at Champaner, near Vadodara, in Gujarat. The treaty was a result of the mutual fear and distrust between the two Sultans, who had been at war with each other for many years.

The treaty also aimed to counter the rising power and threat of Maharana Kumbha, who had defeated both of them in several battles. The treaty also established the boundaries and the rights of the two Sultanates, and pledged to support each other in times of need.

  • Objective – To defeat Rana Kumbha and to take possession of Gujarat on southern part of Mewar and special part of Mewar and Malwa on Ahirwada.
  • Taj Khan, the representative of Mahmud Khilji, had met Qutubuddin Shah in this treaty.

Battle of Bandnaur (Bhilwara) – [1457 AD]

The battle of Bandnaur was a decisive battle between Maharana Kumbha and Qutubuddin Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat. The battle took place in 1457 CE (1514 VS), at Bandnaur, near Bhilwara, in Rajasthan.

The battle was a result of the invasion and aggression of Qutubuddin Shah, who had attacked and plundered the regions of Mewar, Marwar, and Sirohi. He also besieged the fort of Kumbhalgarh, which was the stronghold of Maharana Kumbha.

Maharana Kumbha marched to the rescue of the fort, and met the Sultan at Bandnaur. The battle was fierce and bloody, and lasted for several hours. The Rajput army fought with courage and skill, and inflicted heavy casualties on the Sultan’s army.

The Sultan himself was wounded and fled from the battlefield. Maharana Kumbha emerged victorious, and liberated the fort of Kumbhalgarh. He also captured the fort of Bandnaur, and annexed the region of Gujarat to his kingdom.

Important points to note:

  • Kumbha defeated the combined army of Malwa and Gujarat. This information is obtained from Kirti Stambh Prashasti and Rasik Priya.
  • Kumbha defeated Sahasmal Deora of Sirohi. Sahasmal Deora helped Sultan Qutbuddin Shah of Gujarat. At this time, Kumbha sent an army under the leadership of Narasimha Dodiya.
  • Succession struggle of Nagaur – After the death of Firoz Khan, there was a succession struggle between his son Shams Khan and his brother Mujahid Khan. In which Kumbha helped Shams Khan and defeated Mujahid Khan. Later, Shams Khan started fortification of Nagaur fort, so Kumbha attacked Nagaur. Shams Khan fled to Qutubuddin Shah of Gujarat and got his daughter married to him. Qutubuddin Shah and Shams Khan together attacked Mewar but Kumbha defeated them. Thus the succession struggle of Nagaur became the reason Controversy between Mewar and Gujarat.

Cultural Achievements of Kumbha

1. Architecture

  • Vijay Stambha – Other names – Kirti Stambh, Vishnu, Flag, Garuda Flag, Museum of Sculptures Encyclopedia of Indian Sculpture. Gopinath Sharma has described it as a systematic museum decorated with Hindu deities and Gorishankar Hirachand Ojha has termed it as an invaluable treasure of mythological deities.
  • Specifications –
    • It is a 9 storey building.
    • Length 122 feet width 30 feet.
    • There is no idol in its 8th floor.
    • Architects – Jeta, Poonja, Poma, Napa (their names are given in the fifth floor).
    • Mewar Maharana Swaroop Singh got it rebuilt.
    • Writers of praise of Kirti Stambh – Atri and Mahesh.
    • James Tod compared it to Qutub Minar.
    • Ferguson compared it with the Torzon Tower in Rome.
    • The Vijay Stambh is the first building in Rajasthan on which a postal stamp was issued.
    • Symbols –
      1. Rajasthan Police
      2. Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education
      3. Abhinav Bharat (Organization of Veer Savarkar)
  • The Jain Kirti Stambha – is a 7-storied building in the Chittor Fort.
    • It was built by Jain merchant Jija Shah Bagherwal in the 12th century.
    • It is dedicated to Lord Adinath (Rishabhdev), hence it is also called Adinath Stambha.
  • Forts – According to Kaviraja Shyamaldas’s book Veer Vinod, Kumbha built 32 out of 84 forts of Mewar.
  • Kumbhalgarh – located in Rajsamand. This is the largest and the most magnificent fort of Mewar, which was built by Maharana Kumbha in the 15th century. The fort is located on a hill, and is surrounded by a wall that is 36 km long, and has 360 bastions. The fort has many palaces, temples, gardens, and water tanks, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The fort is also the birthplace of Maharana Pratap, the legendary king of Mewar.
    • Architect – Mandan
    • Kumbhalgarh was the emergency capital of Mewar.
    • It is called the border guard of Mewar-Marwar.
    • Its top most place is Katargarh which was the private residence of Kumbha.
    • It is called the eye of Mewar.
    • Mahesh, the author of Kumbhalgarh Prashasti. This prashasti is attached near Samadev temple.
    • In this praise, Kumbha was described as the ‘incarnation of religion and purity’ and ‘a donor like Karna and Bhoj’.
  • Achalgarh (Sirohi) – Kumbha rebuilt it in 1452 AD.
  • Basantgarh (Basanti Durg) (Sirohi)
  • Machaan Fort (Sirohi) – To control meros.
  • Bhomat fort (Udaipur) – to control the Bhils.
  • Bairath Fort (Bhilwara)
  • Temples –
    • Built the Kumbhaswamy temples of Lord Vishnu in Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh and Achalgarh.
    • Got the Vishnu temple (Meera temple) constructed in Ekling ji.
    • Shringar Chanwari Temple – (Shantinath Jain Temple)
      • It was built by Vela Bhandari (Treasurer of Chittor).
    • Ranakpur (Pali) Jain Temple
      • In 1439 AD, Jain merchant Dharanakshah got these temples constructed.
      • Main Temple – Chaumukha Temple – This temple has the idol of Lord Adinath. There are 1444 pillars in this temple, hence it is called the museum of pillars. [Architect – Depak.]

2. Literature

  • Kumbha was a good musician.
  • He used to play the veena. This information is obtained from Kirti Stambh Prashasti.
  • Music Guru – Sarang Vyas.
  • Books –
    1. Sudha management
    2. Kamaraj Ratisar (Part 7)
    3. Sangeet Sudha
    4. Musical mysticism
    5. Music sequence Deepika
    6. Music Raj (Part 5)
      • Pathya Gems Kosh
      • Geet Ratna Kosh
      • Vadya Ratna Kosh
      • Rasa Ratna Kosh
      • Nritya Ratna Kosh
  • Commentaries of Kumbha –
    • Rasik Priya wrote on Jaydev’s Geet Govind book.
    • Wrote a commentary on Sarangdhar’s Sangeet Ratnakar.
    • Wrote a commentary on Banabhatta’s Chandishtak.
    • Kumbha wrote four plays.
      • Murari Sangathi – Kannada
      • Ras Nandini – Mewari
      • Nandini Vriti – Marathi
      • Atulya Chaturi – Sanskrit
    • Kumbha was a scholar of Marathi, Kannada, Mewari languages.
  • Court scholars –
    • Kanh Vyas – Ekling Mahatmaya (Book)
      • According to this book, Kumbha was interested in Vedas, Smriti, Mimansa, Upanishads, grammar and politics.
      • Its first part is called Rajvarnan which was written by Kumbha.
    • Mehaji – Tirthamala (Book)
      • 120 Tirthas are described in this book. Poet Meha ji gives information about the construction of Kumbhalgarh and Ranakpur temples and was himself present at the consecration ceremony of Ranakpur temple. According to Meha ji, the idols of Hanuman ji, Kumbha brought from Sojat and Nagaur were installed in Kumbhalgarh and Ranakpur.
    • Mandan –
      • Architecture
      • Devamurti Prakarana (Rupavatar)
      • Rajavallabha (Bhupativallabha)
      • Rupmandan (information about sculpture)
      • Kodand Mandan (bow making information)
    • Natha – This was Mandan’s brother.
      • Vastu Manjari
    • Govind – was the son of Mandan.
      • Dwar Deepika
      • Deliverance policy
      • Kalanidhi (Information on temple shikhar construction)
      • Saar Samuchaya (Information on Ayurveda)
    • Ramabai – was the daughter of Kumbha.
      • Like her father, she is interested in music.
      • Ramabai was given the Jawar pargana (region).
      • Title – Wageshwari
    • Hiranand Muni – Guru of Kumbha. Kumbha gave him the title of Kaviraj.
    • Tila Bhatt
    • Somdev Suri (Jain scholar)
    • Somasundara Suri (Jain scholar)
    • Jayasekhara (Jain scholar)
    • Bhuvankirti (Jain scholar)
  • Kumbha had removed the pilgrimage tax for Jains.
  • Titles of Kumbha –
    • Hindu Surtan (protector of Hindus)
    • Abhinav Bharatacharya / Navya Bharat (Music)
    • Rana Rasau (Literature)
    • Hal Guru (Hill Fort Conqueror)
    • Arc Guru (Archer)
    • Param Bhagavat (Vishnu Bhakt)
    • Adi Varaha (Vishnu devotee)
  • Kumbha was murdered by his son Uda in the Kumbhalgarh fort.

3. Kirti Stambha Prashasti

The Kirti Stambha Prashasti is an inscription of Maharana Kumbha, which is dated to 1460 CE (1517 VS).

It is engraved on the Kirti Stambha, the tower that he built to honour the Jain monk Adinatha. The inscription records the construction and the dedication of the tower, and praises the Jain doctrine and the Jain tirthankaras.

The inscription also gives a genealogy and a chronicle of the Sisodia kings, from Bappa Rawal to Kumbha, and praises their achievements and virtues. The inscription also mentions the titles of Kumbha, such as Maharajadhiraja, Parameshvara, Paramabhattaraka, and Ranak. The inscription is written

Important points to note:

  • 3 December 1460 AD (Margashirsha Krishna Panchami Vikrami Samvat 1517)
  • Honorary: Atri Bhatt and Mahesh Bhatt
  • This prashasti was supposedly written on 8 rocks but at present we get only 2 rocks.
  • The achievements of the Guhil dynasty rulers of Mewar from Bapa to Kumbha are obtained from this praise.
  • This prashasti gives information about the conquest campaigns of Kumbha like: Mandor, Sapadalaksha, Narana, Basantpur, Abu, Khandela, Jangldesh, Nagaur, Gujarat, Malwa etc.
  • In this prashasti, the description of defeating the combined forces of Malwa and Gujarat is found.
  • In this prashasti, information about the texts composed by Kumbha is found such as: Sangeetraj, Chandishtak and Gitagovind’s Tika, Sudha – Prabandha and 4 plays.
  • Information about the opponents of Kumbha is obtained such as: Rajguru, Danguru, Shailguru, Abhinav Bharatacharya.
  • The date of construction works done in Kirtistambh, Kumbhalgarh, Achalgarh etc. is given from this prashasti.

Kumbha composed a treatise (Stambharaj) on the subject of Kirti Stambhs and got himself installed on the rocks of ‘Kirti Stambh’, according to which he composed this book after observing the opinions of Jai and Aparajit (sons of Brahma).

Raimal (1473-1509 AD)

Raimal, also known as Raimalla or Rana Raimal, was the son of Kshetra Singh, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty.

He ascended the throne after the death of his uncle, Maharana Kumbha, who was assassinated by his son Uda. Raimal faced the challenge of maintaining the unity and stability of his kingdom, which was threatened by the internal conflicts and the external invasions.

He also faced the competition and rivalry of his cousins, Sanga and Prithviraj, who claimed the throne of Mewar. He fought against the Delhi Sultanate, the Gujarat Sultanate, the Malwa Sultanate, and the Bahmani Sultanate. He also formed alliances with the Gondwana kingdom, the Tomara kingdom, and the Rathore kingdom. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries.

He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Raimalla.

Political achievements

Raimal made many political achievements, which enhanced his prestige and authority. Some of his political achievements are:

  • Recovery of Chittor: Raimal recovered the fort of Chittor, which was the capital and the symbol of Mewar, from the Sultan of Malwa, Ghiyasuddin Khilji. He besieged the fort, and defeated the Sultan’s forces. He entered the fort, and performed the rites of coronation. He restored the glory and honour of the Rajputs, and became the hero of Mewar.
  • Alliance with Rao Jodha: Raimal strengthened the alliance with Rao Jodha, the king of the Rathore dynasty of Marwar, who was his brother-in-law. He supported Rao Jodha in his wars against the Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Begada, and the Sultan of Malwa, Ghiyasuddin Khilji. He also helped Rao Jodha in the foundation of the city of Jodhpur, which was the new capital of Marwar.
  • Succession of Sanga: Raimal settled the succession dispute of Mewar, by appointing his eldest son Sanga as his heir. He also reconciled with his younger son Prithviraj, who had rebelled against him. He divided his kingdom between his two sons, and gave Sanga the regions of Mewar, Marwar, and Malwa, and Prithviraj the regions of Idar, Abu, and Sirohi. He also ensured the loyalty and support of his other sons and nephews, who were the rulers of the various branches of the Sisodia clan.

Cultural achievements

  • Got the wonderful (Abbadji) Shiva temple constructed in Chittor.
    • Other Abbadji Temples –
      • Shantinath Jain Temple of Nagda
      • Samidweshwar (Tribhuvannarayan) Temple of Chittor
  • The present form of Ekling Ji Temple (Kailashpuri, Nagda) was built.
  • His sister Ramabai built a Vishnu temple named Ramaswami and a tank at Javar.
  • His queen Shringar Kanwar got a stepwell constructed in Ghosundi (Chittor). In the commendation given here, another introduction has been given to the descendants of Shringar Kanwar’s husband and father (Jodha).

Ghosundi Abhilekha

  • This is a record of the second century BC.
  • This is the oldest record of Rajasthan giving information about Vaishnava (Bhagwat) religion.
  • According to this record, King Sarvatat of Gaj dynasty had got the Ashvamedha Yajna built.

Prithviraj

Prithviraj, also known as Prithvi Singh, was the son of Raimal, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty. He ascended the throne after the death of his brother, Maharana Sanga, who was killed by the Mughal emperor Babur.

Prithviraj faced the challenge of maintaining the unity and stability of his kingdom, which was threatened by the internal conflicts and the external invasions. He also faced the competition and rivalry of his nephews, Udai Singh and Vikramaditya, who claimed the throne of Mewar.

He fought against the Mughal empire, the Gujarat Sultanate, the Malwa Sultanate, and the Maratha kingdom. He also formed alliances with the Gondwana kingdom, the Tomara kingdom, and the Rathore kingdom.

He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Prithvi.

Important Points to note:

  • He was the son of Raimal.
  • It is called the flying prince.
  • Ajmer fort is called Taragarh because of its queen Tara.
  • Prithviraj’s Chhattari is in Kumbhalgarh fort (12 pillars).

Jaimal

Jaimal, also known as Jaimal Rathore, was the son of Rao Duda, and the ruler of the Rathore clan of Marwar.

He was the cousin of Prithviraj, and the nephew of Rao Jodha. He was a brave and loyal Rajput warrior, who fought for the defence of Mewar, and the honour of the Rajputs. He was the commander of the fort of Chittor, which was besieged by the Mughal emperor Akbar. He resisted the attacks of the Mughal army with courage and skill, and inflicted heavy casualties on them.

He also devised various tactics and strategies, such as mining, catapults, and treachery, to counter the Mughal siege. He fought valiantly, and killed many of the Mughal soldiers, but was wounded and killed by a musket shot. He was honoured as a martyr and a hero by the Rajputs and the Indians.

  • He was the son of Raimal.
  • He was killed fighting against the Solankis.

Maharana Sanga (Sangram Singh) (1509 – 1528 AD)

  • He was the son of Raimal.
  • After a dispute with his brothers, Sanga took refuge with Karmchand Panwar in Srinagar (Ajmer).
  • After Raimal’s death, Sanga became the king of Mewar. (5 May 1509 AD)
  • At the time when Maharana Sanga became the king of Mewar, Sikandar Lodi was ruling in Delhi, Mahmud Shah Begada in Gujarat and Nasir Shah Khilji in Malwa.
Sangram Singh (Maharana Sanga)
Maharana Sanga was considered to be the most powerful king despite having close to 80 wounds on his body and having lost one arm and an eye.

Malwa v/s Sanga

  • Reasons of conflict –
    • Sanga wanted to establish influence in northern India and for this authority over Malwa was necessary.
    • The internal condition of Malwa was weak which was a favorable opportunity for Sanga.
    • Medinirai of Chanderi sought help from Sanga against Mahmud Khilji II.

Battle of Gagron (Jhalawar) 1519 AD

[Sanga v/s Mahmood Khilji II]

  • At this time, the fort of Gagaron was near Medinirai, the king of Chanderi (Malwa).
  • Sanga won.
  • Haridas Charan arrested Mahmud Khilji II. That’s why Sanga gave them 12 villages.
  • According to the Muslim writer ‘Nizamuddin, “After getting victory in the battle, after arresting the enemy and giving him the kingdom, this work is not known till date that anyone else has done it.”

Gujrat v/s Sanga

  • Reasons of conflicts –
    • Sanga’s policy of empire expansion
    •  From the time of Kumbha, there was a struggle between Mewar and Gujarat.
    • Muzaffar Shah II of Gujarat helped Mahmud Khilji II of Malwa against Sanga.
    • The Muslim state of Nagaur was a tax state of Sanga and the Sultan of Gujarat wanted to make it independent.
  • The immediate reason –
    • Eder’s succession struggle.
    • In Idar there was a succession struggle between Bharmal and Raimal in which Muzaffar Shah II was supporting Bharmal and Sanga was an ally of Raimal.

Battle of Bayana (Bharatpur) on 16 February 1527 AD.

(Afghanistan) Babur v/s Sanga

  • At this time the fort of Bayana was with Mehndi Khwaja.
  • Babur’s general Sultan Mirza
  • Sanga won.

Battle of Khanwa (Bharatpur) – 17 March 1527 AD.

  • Babur announced Jihad before this war.
  • Babur took a vow not to drink alcohol.
  • Babur abolished the tax of Muslim traders.
  • Sanga wrote letters to all the kings of Rajasthan and sought help
    • Amer – Prithviraj
    • Bikaner – Kalyanamalla (Raja – Jain – Jaitasi)
    • Merta – Veeramdev
    • Sirohi – Akhairaj Deora
    • Chanderi (Madhya Pradesh) – Medini Rai
    • Eider – Bharmal
    • Vagad – Uday Singh
    • Devaliya (Pratapgarh) – Bagh Singh
    • Sadadi (Chittor) – Jhala Ajja
    • Salumber – Ratan Singh Chundawat
    • Mewat (Alwar) – Hasan Khan Mewati
    • Mahmud Lodi – Brother of Ibrahim Lodi
  • Jhala Ajja (Sadadi) led the battle as Sanga was injured.
  • Babur won.
  • He assumed the title of ‘Ghazi’.
  • Baswa (Dausa) – Injured Sanga was treated.
  • Kalpi (Uttar Pradesh) – Sanga died here.
  • Madalgarh (Bhilwara) is the Chhattari of Sanga.

Cause of Khanwa war

  • There was a conflict between the political ambitions of Sanga and Babur.
  • Sanga had captured many areas of Delhi Sultanate (200 villages of Khandar (Sawai Madhopur)).
  • Rajput-Afghan alliance.
  • Babur accused Sanga of breaking his promise.
  • Sanga had captured the fort of Bayana.

Reasons of Sanga’s defeat

  • Sanga’s army lacked unity. His army was fighting under the leadership of different generals.
  • Babur’s artillery.
  • Tulguma war system of Babur (attack from three sides)
  • After the Bayana war, Sanga had given Babur enough time to prepare for the war.
  • Sanga himself went to the battlefield.
  • Many of Sanga’s companions betrayed Sanga and joined Babur during the war. Like- Salhadi Tanwar of Raisin (Madhya Pradesh) and Khanzade Muslim of Nagaur.
  • The Mughal army used horses while the Rajput army used elephants.
  • Mughal soldiers used lighter weapons than Rajputs.

Significance of the Battle of Khanwa

  • After defeating the Afghans and Rajputs, it became easy for Babur to rule in India.
  • Khanwa was the last battle in which unity was seen among the Rajput kings of Rajasthan.
  • Sanga was the last Rajput king who attempted to challenge Delhi.
  • The strategic weaknesses of the Rajputs were exposed.
  • There was no great king left after Sanga, due to which Hindu art and culture suffered loss.
  • The future policy of the Mughals towards the Rajputs was decided after the Battle of Khanwa.

Sanga’s titles

  • Hindupat
  • Soldier’s Wreck (80 wounds)
  • According to Baburnama, there were 7 Rajas, 9 Raos and 104 Sardars/Senapatis in Sanga’s court.

Bhojraj

  • He was the eldest son of Sanga.
  • He was married to Meera Bai, and was the elder brother of Udai singh, so the relation between Maharana pratap and Meera bai is easy to figure out, Meera Bai was Thaijii to Maharana Pratap.

Ratan Singh

  • Ratan Singh was the son of Maharana Sangram Singh.
  • After the death of Sanga, he became the king of Mewar.
  • He was killed fighting against Surajmal of Bundi.

Maharana Vikramaditya (1531 – 1536 AD)

  • Father – Sanga
  • Mother – Karmavati (Queen of Hadi (Bundi))
  • Conservatory – Karmavati
  • In 1533 AD, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat attacked Mewar.
  • Karmavati had made a treaty by giving Ranthambore fort.
  • Bahadur Shah again attacked Mewar in 1534-35 AD.
  • The second Sākā of Chittor took place in 1535.
  • Rani Karmavati did Jauhar and saffron was done under the leadership of Bagh Singh of Devalia (Pratapgarh).
  • Bagh Singh is also known as Devalia Diwan.
  • Bagh Singh’s chhatri is built at Padupol (Chittorgarh).
  • Information about the Jauhar of Karmavati is available from the Pur copper plate of 1535 AD.
  • Bagh Singh also participated in the battle of Khanwa.
  • Banveer was made the administrator of Mewar.
  • Banveer was the son of the maidservant of Udhna Prince Prithviraj.
  • Vikramaditya was killed by Banveer (1536 AD).
  • He wanted to kill Udai Singh as well, but Pannadhay saved Udai Singh by sacrificing his son Chandan.
  • Asha Devpura of Kumbhalgarh gave shelter to Pannadhai and Uday Singh.

Maharana Udai Singh (1537 – 72 AD)

  • Father – Rana Sanga
  • Mother – Karmavati

Battle of Mavli (Udaipur) – (1540 AD)

  • Uday Singh defeated Banveer in this war.
  • While returning from Marwar in 1544, Sher Shah Suri turned towards Chittor but Uday Singh made a treaty with him.

Battle of Harmada (Ajmer) – 1557 AD. | Uday Singh v/s Haji Khan Pathan (Ajmer)

  • Maldev (Jodhpur) defeated Uday Singh by supporting Haji Khan Pathan.
  • Jaitsinh of Maldev Khairwa (Pali) wanted to marry Jhala’s princess but Jaitsinh got her married to Uday Singh, so there was a dispute between Maldev and Uday Singh.
  • Uday Singh built a palace in Kumbhalgarh for that Jhali Rani who is famous as ‘Jhali Rani Ka Malia’.
  • Udaipur was established in 1559 and Paneda Mahal was first built here where
  • In course of time, the rulers of Mewar were coronated. Earlier, Uday Singh wanted to build a new city in Ahad and Moti Mahal was also built there. But later on the advice of a monk, a new city Udaipur was established.
  • Udayasagar lake was constructed.
  • Akbar attacked Chittor in 1567-68 AD.
  • Uday Singh went to the hills of Girwa (Udaipur).
  • The responsibility of Chittor fort was given to Jaimal-Patta. Jaimal was injured by the bullet of a gun named Sangram of Akbar.
  • Jaimal fought on the shoulders of Kalla Rathod. That’s why Kalla Rathore is called the deity of four hands.
  • In 1568 AD, the third Saka of Chittor took place.
  • Jauhar was performed under the leadership of Phool Kanwar.
  • Akbar captured Chittor on 25 February 1568. And he killed 30,000 people in Chittor. After this, Akbar introduced ‘Sikka Elchi’ here.
  • Akbar was impressed by the bravery of Jaimal and Patta and installed the idols of Jaimal and Patta in the fort of Agra.
  • French traveler Bernier has described these idols. Book – Travels in the Mughal Empire
  • The Chhatris of Jaimal and Kalla Rathore are located between Hanuman Pol and Bhairav ​​Pol (Chittor) and the leaf canopy is built on ‘Rampol’ (Chittor).
  • Uday Singh’s Chhattari is made in Gogunda.
  • Uday Singh did not make his elder son Pratap the king but made the younger son Jagmal the king.

Jaimal

Jaimal, also known as Jaimal Rathore, was the son of Rao Duda, and the ruler of the Rathore clan of Marwar. He was the cousin of Prithviraj, and the nephew of Rao Jodha. He was a brave and loyal Rajput warrior, who fought for the defence of Mewar, and the honour of the Rajputs.

He was the commander of the fort of Chittor, which was besieged by the Mughal emperor Akbar. He resisted the attacks of the Mughal army with courage and skill, and inflicted heavy casualties on them.

He also devised various tactics and strategies, such as mining, catapults, and treachery, to counter the Mughal siege. He fought valiantly, and killed many of the Mughal soldiers, but was wounded and killed by a musket shot. He was honoured as a martyr and a hero by the Rajputs and the Indians.

  • This was the king of Merta.
  • In 1562 AD, Akbar had captured Merta.

Patta Chundawat

Patta Chundawat, also known as Patta Sisodia, was the son of Jaimal, and the ruler of the Chundawat clan of Mewar. He was the grandson of Prithviraj, and the nephew of Udai Singh. He was a brave and loyal Rajput warrior, who fought for the defence of Mewar, and the honour of the Rajputs.

He was the co-commander of the fort of Chittor, along with his father Jaimal, which was besieged by the Mughal emperor Akbar. He resisted the attacks of the Mughal army with courage and skill, and inflicted heavy casualties on them. He also devised various tactics and strategies, such as mining, catapults, and treachery, to counter the Mughal siege.

He fought valiantly, and killed many of the Mughal soldiers, but was wounded and killed by a cannon ball. He was honoured as a martyr and a hero by the Rajputs and the Indians.

  • It was a feudatory of Amet (Rajsamand).
  • Amet was the first class place of Mewar.

Phool Kanwar

Phool Kanwar, also known as Phool Kumari, was the daughter of Rao Maldeo, and the wife of Prithviraj. She was the princess of the Rathore clan of Marwar, and the niece of Rao Jodha. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman, who supported and advised her husband in his wars and affairs. She was also a devout Hindu, and worshipped the goddess Durga.

She was the leader of the second “Sākā” of Chittor, which took place in 1568 CE, when the Mughal emperor Akbar besieged the fort of Chittor. She led the Rajput women, who performed the ritual of self-immolation, to avoid falling into the hands of the Mughal army. She was revered as a symbol of honour, sacrifice, and patriotism by the Rajputs and the Indians.

  • Jaimal’s sister and Patta’s queen.

Maharana Pratap (1572–97 AD)

Maharana Pratap, also known as Pratap Singh, was the son of Udai Singh, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who had fled from the fort of Chittor, after the Mughal siege.

Maharana Pratap was one of the greatest and most legendary kings of Mewar, and is regarded as the “Lion of Mewar” and the “Pride of India”. He refused to accept the supremacy and the suzerainty of the Mughal empire, and fought for the independence and the dignity of Mewar, and the Rajputs.

He fought against the Mughal emperor Akbar, and his generals, such as Raja Man Singh, Raja Todar Mal, and Asaf Khan. He also formed alliances with the Gondwana kingdom, the Tomara kingdom, and the Rathore kingdom. He was a patron of the Brahmins and the Jains, and built many temples and monasteries. He also issued coins in his name, which bore the legend Sri Pratapa.

Important points to note:

  • Father – Udai Singh
  • Mother – Jaywanta Bai Songara (Daughter of Akhairaj Songara of Pali)
  • Birth – 9 May 1540 AD (Jyeshtha Shukla Tritiya Vikrami Samvat 1597)
  • Birth Place – Kumbhalgarh
  • Childhood name – Keeka
  • Queen – Ajab De Panwar
  • Pratap’s first coronation took place in Gogunda. Samant Krishnadas Chundawat of Salumber had done the coronation.
  • Pratap’s formal coronation took place in Kumbhalgarh. Marwar’s ‘Chandrasen’ also came in this royal function.
  • Akbar sent four messengers to convince Pratap
    1. Jalal Khan Korchi September 1572 AD.
    2. Mansingh – June 1573 AD.
    3. Bhagwantdas September 1573 AD.
    4. Todarmal – December 1573 AD.
Maharana Pratap With Horse Chetak Painting

Battle of Haldighati (Rajsamand) – 18 June 1576 AD

The battle of Haldighati was a decisive battle between Maharana Pratap and the Mughal emperor Akbar. The battle took place on 18 June 1576 CE (1633 VS), at Haldighati, near Rajsamand, in Rajasthan.

The battle was a result of the refusal of Maharana Pratap to accept the Mughal authority, and to pay tribute to the Mughal emperor. The Mughal emperor sent a large army, led by Raja Man Singh, the king of Amber, and Asaf Khan, the brother of Akbar’s wife, to subdue and capture Maharana Pratap.

Maharana Pratap gathered a small army, consisting of his loyal Rajput warriors, and his allies, such as the Bhils and the Meenas. He also had his faithful horse, Chetak, and his loyal friend, Hakim Khan Sur. The battle was fierce and bloody, and lasted for several hours. The Rajput army fought with courage and skill, and inflicted heavy casualties on the Mughal army.

However, the Mughal army had an advantage in numbers and weapons, and overpowered the Rajput army. Maharana Pratap was wounded and surrounded by the Mughal soldiers, but he managed to escape with the help of his horse, Chetak, who sacrificed his life to save his master. Maharana Pratap retreated to the hills of Aravalli, and continued his resistance against the Mughal empire.

Important points to note:

  • Pratap v/s Akbar –
    • Pratap –
      • Krishnadas Chundawat (Salumber)
      • Hakim Khan Sur (Afghan chieftain)
      • Ramshah Tomar (Gwalior)
      • Poonja Bhil (leader of the Bhils)
    • Akbar –
      • Asaf khan
      • Mansingh (independent commander for the first time)
  • Before the war, the Mughal army in a village named Molela and the army of Mewar in a village named Losing was stopped.
  • Due to the injury of Chetak (ultimate powerful horse of Maharana Pratap), Pratap went out of the battle field.
  • Jhala Mana (Bida) led the war and attained martyrdom.
  • A soldier named ‘Mihattar Khan’ had given false information about Akbar’s arrival in the war.
  • Mansingh failed to get Pratap to accept Akbar’s submission.
  • Akbar had stopped Mansingh and Asaf Khan from coming to the court.
  • Chetak’s Chhattari is made in Balicha (Rajsamand).
  • In the Haldighati war, an elephant named Luna and Ramprasad participated from Pratap’s side, while elephants named Mardana and Gajmukta were present from the Mughal side. Ramprasad was captured by the Mughal army and Akbar changed its name to Pirprasad.
  • Badayuni participated in the Battle of Haldighati. Book: Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh Badayuni has written that neither had the courage nor the power to chase Pratap. According to him, the Mughals feared that Pratap’s army might not be sitting in ambush in the mountains. Therefore, instead of following Pratap, it was considered better to go towards him. Where the Bhils harassed the Mughal army a lot, they looted their supplies.
  • Badayuni’s above statement, Mansingh’s refusal to attend the court by Akbar, Akbar himself coming to attack Mewar and analyzing the incidents, it is clear that Pratap had a heavy upper hand in the Battle of Haldighati. He broke the illusion of invincibility of the Mughals.
  • In 1576 AD, Akbar attacked Mewar and changed the name of Udaipur to Muhammadabad.

Battle of Kumbhalgarh

Mughal general Shahbaz Khan attacked Kumbhalgarh three times. (1577, 1578, 1579 AD)

The battle of Kumbhalgarh was a decisive battle between Maharana Pratap and the Mughal emperor Akbar. The battle took place in 1578 CE (1635 VS), at Kumbhalgarh, the stronghold of Maharana Pratap.

He battle was a result of the invasion and aggression of the Mughal emperor, who wanted to capture and annex the regions of Mewar, Marwar, and Sirohi. He sent a large army, led by Raja Todar Mal, the finance minister of the Mughal empire, and Shahbaz Khan, the governor of Gujarat, to besiege the fort of Kumbhalgarh.

Maharana Pratap defended his fort with bravery and determination, and resisted the attacks of the Mughal army with courage and skill. He also devised various tactics and strategies, such as mining, catapults, and treachery, to counter the Mughal siege.

He fought valiantly, and killed many of the Mughal soldiers, but was wounded and surrounded by the Mughal soldiers. He managed to escape with the help of his friend, Hakim Khan Sur, who sacrificed his life to save his master. Maharana Pratap retreated to the hills of Aravalli, and continued his resistance against the Mughal empire.

Sherpur (Udaipur) incident 1580 AD.

Amar Singh had arrested the wives of Abdul Rahim (the Mughal general). But Pratap sent them back with respect.

Battle of Diver (Rajsamand) – 1582 AD

  • The Mughal army had established its thanas at four places –
    1. Diver
    2. Deval
    3. Debari
    4. Desuri
  • Pratap had defeated the Mughal army.
  • Amar Singh had killed the Mughal general Sultan Khan.
  • Amar Singh had killed the Mughal general Sultan Khan.
  • James Tod called this war the marathon of Mewar.
  • Pratapgarh, Banswara, and Idar princely states supported Pratap.
  • In 1585 AD, Jagannath Kachwaha attacked Mewar. This was the last attack on Mewar from Akbar’s side.
  • Pratap had snatched Malpura (Tonk) from the princely state of Amer.
  • Pratap got ‘Jhalra Talab’ and ‘Neelkanth Mahadev Temple’ constructed in Malpura.
  • Pratap made Chavand (Udaipur) his capital. Chavand was the capital of Mewar for 28 years. Pratap had got Chamunda Mata’s temple and palaces built in Chavand.
  • The independent development of the independent painting of Mewar started from Chavand. Chief painter – Nasiruddin
  • Pratap died in Chavand on January 19, 1597 AD. Except for Chittorgarh and Mandalgarh, Pratap recaptured the entire Mewar.
  • Pratap’s Chhattari – Bandoli (Udaipur) (8 pillars)

Court scholar

  1. Chakrapani Mishra –
    • Book –
      • Rajyabhishek (Classical method of coronation)
      • Muhurtmala (Astrology)
      • Vishwa Vallabh (Knowledge of Horticulture)
  2. Hemratna Suri – Gaura Badal Ri Chaupai (Book)
  3. Sadulnath Trivedi – Pratap had given him a manor named Mander. This information comes from 1588 AD Udaipur inscription.
  4. Bhamashah – He met Pratap with his brother Tarachand in a village called ‘Chulia’ and presented Pratap 25 lakh rupees in cash and 20 thousand gold Ashrafiya, so that Pratap could keep an army of 25 thousand for 12 years. Pratap made Bhamashah the prime minister. Bhamashah is called the savior of Mewar.
  5. Mala Sandu
  6. Rama Sandu

According to Jeevdhar’s work ‘Amarsar’, Pratap had established such a strong rule that even women and children were not afraid of anyone. Internal security was also achieved to such an extent that no one was punished without any crime. He also tried to spread education.

In relation to Pratap, Colonel Tod writes that like the Alps mountain, there is no such valley in Aravalli, which has not been sanctified by some heroic act, bright victory or more famous defeat of Pratap. Haldighati is the Thermopally of Mewar and Divar is the ‘Marathon’ of Mewar.

Amar Singh I (1597-1620 AD)

Amar Singh I, also known as Amar Singh Rathore, was the son of Maharana Pratap, and the king of the Sisodia dynasty. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, who had fought for the independence and dignity of Mewar, and the Rajputs.

Mughal-Mewar Treaty [5 February 1615 AD]

  • This treaty was concluded between the Mughal emperor Jahangir and the ruler of Mewar, Amar Singh I.
  • Haridas and Shubhakaran went to Mewar with a proposal for a treaty.
  • Khurram (Shah Jahan) made a treaty on behalf of the Mughals.

terms of treaty

  • The Rana of Mewar would not go to the Mughal court.
  • The prince of Mewar will go to the Mughal court.
  • Mewar will give the help of 1000 cavalry soldiers to the Mughals.
  • Chittor fort will be given back to Mewar. But Mewar could not rebuild it.
  • Marital relations will not be established.

importance of treaty

  • The feeling of independence that was going on since the time of Sanga and Pratap declined.
  • With the cessation of wars, peace was ensured in Mewar. Due to which artistic activities were encouraged.
  • Prince Karan Singh went to the court of Jahangir. Jahangir made Karan Singh a mansabdar of 5000.
  • Jahangir had installed the statues of Karan Singh and Amar Singh in the fort of Agra.
  • According to English Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe, “The Emperor had subdued the Rana of Mewar by mutual agreement and not by force. He subdued him by a kind of mercy and not by victory. There was no increase, but he had to give a lot in return (from the book “The Embassy of Sir Thomas Roe”, edited by William Foster)
  • Amar Singh was disappointed with this treaty and went to Nau Chowki (Rajsamand).
  • Later, Rajsamand lake was constructed here.

In the Dargah of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, it is known from the inscription of Shahjahanni Mosque of 1637 AD that Prince Khurram had built this mosque after the treaty with Mewar.

  • Amar Singh’s chhatri is built in Ahad (Udaipur). After Amarsingh, the umbrellas of all the Maharanas of Mewar are located in Ahar itself and this place is called Mahasatiyan.

Karan Singh (1620-28 AD)

  • Karna Vilas and Dilkhush palaces were built in Udaipur.
  • Started the construction of Jagmandir Mahal. (in Lake Pichola)
  • During his rebellion, Khurram stayed in the Jagmandir palaces.

Jagat Singh I (1628-52 AD)

  • Completed the construction of Jagmandir Mahal.
  • Built Jagdish (Jagannath Temple) in Udaipur. This is called a temple built in a dream. This temple is built in Panchayatan style. Whose architects were Arjun, Bhana, Mukand. Here information about ‘Haldighati war‘ is available from Jagannath Rai Prashasti composed by Krishna Bhatt.
  • Its foster mother Naujubai got the Vishnu temple constructed in Udaipur. Which is also known as Nauju Bai’s temple.
  • Jagat Singh was famous for his ‘charity’.

Raj Singh (1652–1680 AD)

  • Started the reconstruction of Chittor Fort and adopted an aggressive policy against Shah Jahan. At this time, Shah Jahan stopped this reconstruction by sending Sadullah Khan.
  • Raj Singh supported Aurangzeb in the succession struggle. At this time, Raj Singh organized the vaccine race and took control of many Mughal areas.
  • Aurangzeb’s ‘Jajiya tax’ was opposed.
  • Helped Ajit Singh of Jodhpur against Aurangzeb. This is called the ‘Rathore-Sisodia alliance‘.
  • Protected the idols of Hindu deities against Aurangzeb.
  • Protected Hindu princesses against Aurangzeb. For example, in 1669 AD, he married Princess Charumati of Rupangarh (Ajmer) against Aurangzeb’s wish.

Sahal Kanwar

  • This was the female bone of Salumber’s Samant Ratan Singh Chundawat.
  • On asking for a sign of her husband, she cut off her head and gave it to him.
  • This incident happened at the time of marriage of Raj Singh Charumati.
  • Poem by Meghraj Mukul – Sainani (Sign)

Cultural achievements

  • Temples –
    • Shri Nath Temple – Sihad (Nathdwara) (Rajsamand) – The idol of Shri Nathji was brought by Govinddas and Damodar from Mathura. (1672 AD)
    • Dwarkadhish Temple – Kankroli (Rajsamand)
    • Amba Mata Temple – Udaipur
  • Lakes –
    • Trimukhi Bawdi (Udaipur) – This lake was built by Ramrasade, the queen of Raj Singh. It is also called Jaya Bawdi.
    • Janasagar Pond (Udaipur) – It was built by Raj Singh’s mother Janade Rathore. Krishna Bhatt’s son Laxminath was the prashasti of Janasagar Prashasti and his brother Bhaskar Bhatt was the author.
    • Rajsamand Lake (Rajsamand)
  • Court scholar –
    • Kishordas – Rajprakash (Book)
    • Sadashiv Bhatt – Raj Ratnakar (Book)
    • Ranchod Bhatt Tailang –
      • Raj Prashasti
      • Amar Kavya Genealogy
    • Kavi Mann – Raj Vilas (Book)
    • Girdhar Das – Sagat Rasau (information about Pratap’s younger brother Shaktisinh)

Raj Prashasti

  • It is situated near the Rajsamand lake at a place called Nauchowki.
  • This is the largest inscription in Sanskrit language. It is written on 25 stones.
  • From this prashasti, the genealogy of the kings of Mewar from Bapa Rawal to Rajsingh, Mughal Mewar treaty, Pratap’s brother Shakti Singh is known. This praise gives information about “Prithviraj Raso” and Gurukul system.
  • From 1662 to 1676 AD, Rajsamand Lake was constructed under famine relief works.

Amar Kavya Vanshavali

  • This book contains information about Amar Singh II.
  • It also gives information about Pratap’s younger brother Shanti Singh and Pratap’s horse Chetak.

Titles of Raj Singh

  • Vijayakatakatu (conqueror of armies)
  • Hydraulic ruler

Jaisingh (1680-98 AD)

  • After making a treaty with Aurangzeb, the Rathore-Sisodia broke away from the ‘coalition‘.
  • In lieu of Jizya, the parganas of Pur Mandal and Badnaur were given to the emperor. However, in course of time, these parganas got again to Mewar.
  • In 1687 AD, the construction of Jaisamand Lake was started in Udaipur, which was completed in 1691 AD. For this, dams were made by stopping the water of Gomti, Jhamri, Ruparel and Bagar rivers. Due to this it is also called Dhebar Lake. The ‘Narmadeshwar’ pagoda is located near it. Jai Singh had built palaces here for his Parmar queen Komala Devi, which is also known as ‘Ruthi Rani Ka Mahal’. d
  • Many islands named ‘Baba Ka Magra‘ and ‘Piri’ are situated in this lake.

Amar Singh II (1698-1710 AD)

  • Started the trend of Amarshahi turban in Mewar.

Debari (Udaipur) settlement – [1708 AD]

  • This agreement was made against the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I.

Terms of agreement

  • Ajit Singh and Sawai Jai Singh will be helped to get their kingdoms.
  • Amar Singh II’s daughter Chandra Kanwar will be married to Sawai Jai Singh. And Chandrakanwar’s son will be the next king of Amer.

Sangram Singh II (1710–34)

  • The Marathas received chauth from Mewar. (First time in Rajasthan)
  • Saheliyon Ki Badi was built in Udaipur.
  • Vaidyanath (Shivji) temple was built in Sisarma (Udaipur).
  •  It was built for his mother Dev Kunwari. (1716 AD)
  • The author of Vaidyanath Prashasti is Roop Bhatt. Information about the Battle of Bandanwara (Ajmer) is obtained from this praise. In this battle, Sangram Singh II defeated the Mughal general Ranbaz Khan. This war took place due to Pur, Mandal, Badnaur parganas.

Jagat Singh II (1734-51)

Hurda Conference (Bhilwara) – 17 July 1734 AD

  • It was a conference of the Rajput kings of Rajasthan against the Marathas.
    • Mewar – Jagat Singh II (Chairman)
    • Jaipur – Sawai Jaisingh
    • Marwar – Abhay Singh
    • Abhay Singh – Bakht Singh
    • Bikaner – Zorawar Singh
    • Boondi – Dalel Singh
    • Kota – Durjan Sal
    • Kishangarh – Raj Singh
    • Karauli – Gopalpal

Conference decisions

  • All the kings will help each other against the Marathas.
  • fought against the Marathas at Rampura (Kota) after the end of the rainy seaso will go .

Importance of conference

  • After the Khanwa war, Rajput kings of Rajasthan tried to create unity against any other peace.
  • The Hurda conference had failed due to sudden differences between the kings.
  • Built the Jagat Niwas Palace in Udaipur. Court scholar Nekram wrote a book named Jagat Vilas. In which there is a detailed description of the prestige of this palace.

Bhim Singh (1778 – 1828)

Rana Bhim Singh (1784 – 1824 AD)

  • Rana Bhimsingh fixed the marriage of his daughter Krishnakumari with Bhimsingh, the ruler of Marwar. Unfortunately, Bhim Singh of Marwar died before marriage. After the death of Bhim Singh, the marriage of Krishna Kumari was arranged with Jagat Singh II of Amer. Mansingh, the new ruler of Marwar, opposed this relationship because he was Bhimsingh’s brother.
  • Due to this incident, Amer and Marwar princely states became hostile and in 1807 AD, the war of Gingoli between Jagat Singh II and Mansingh (Parbatsar)
  • In this war that lasted for a long time, there was fierce bloodshed.

Battle of Gingoli (Parbatsar) (Nagaur) 1807 

  • Jagat Singh II (Jaipur) V/S Mansingh (Jodhpur)
  • At the behest of Amir Khan Pindari (Tonk) and Ajit Singh (Chundawat (Salumber) This dispute was ended by giving poison to Krishna Kumari. (21July 1810)
  • On January 13, 1818 AD, Bhim Singh makes a treaty with the British. In this treaty, the representative of the British was Charles Metcalf and the representative of Mewar was Ajit Singh. Colonel James Tod was made the first political agent of Mewar.

Frequently Asked Questions –

When was Chittor’s first saka took place?

In 1303 AD, Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi attacked Mewar. At the time of this attack, Chittor’s first “Sākā” took place, under which Rani Padmini along with 1600 other women committed Jauhar and Ratan Singh committed saffron along with his generals Gora and Badal.

What is Saka or Johar?

Saka | Jauhar

Sākā is a famous practice of Rajasthan (Place of Kings and Forts), in which men dressed in saffron used to pounce on the enemy army with the determination to die when they saw women deciding to jump into the flame of Jauhar.

Who was Hammir?

He was a feudatory of Sisoda (Rajsamand). The Sisodia branch of Guhil dynasty started from here. He used the title Rana. (Ratan Singh Rawal was the last ruler of the branch)
Sisoda was given to Rahap during the time of Rawal Ransingh/Karnsingh. Rahap’s descendant Laxman Singh along with his (son) Arisingh (Hammir’s father) died in the first battle of Chittor. Hammir’s uncle Ajay Singh made Hammir the vassal of Sisoda. Ajay Singh’s son Sajjan Singh went to South India, And Shivaji was his descendant.

Who was the founder of sisodia dynasty?

Hammir was a feudatory of Sisoda (Rajsamand). The Sisodia branch of Guhil dynasty started from here. He used the title Rana (Rana Hammir). (Ratan Singh Rawal was the last ruler of the branch)

What was the relation between Meera bai and Maharana Pratap?

Bhojraj was married to Meera Bai, and was the elder brother of Udai singh, so the relation between Maharana pratap and Meera bai is easy to figure out, Meera Bai was Thaijii to Maharana Pratap.

What were the reasons for Alauddin Khilji’s attack on Mewar?

– Khilaji’s imperial ambitions
– Strategic importance of Chittor (strong hill, huge rampart, food-water storage)
– Commercial importance of Chittor (located on the route from Delhi to Gujarat and Malwa)
– Mewar’s Growing influence
– Question of prestige for Khilaji (Ratnasingh’s father Samarsingh had collected road tax from Sultan while going to Gujarat)
– Khilaji’s Longing to get Rani Padmini.

Who was the architect of Kumbhalgarh fort?

Kumbhalgarh – located in Rajsamand. Architect – Mandan

What were the cause of Khanwa war?

– There was a conflict between the political ambitions of Sanga and Babur.
– Sanga had captured many areas of Delhi Sultanate (200 villages of Khandar (Sawai Madhopur)).
– Rajput-Afghan alliance.
– Babur accused Sanga of breaking his promise.
– Sanga had captured the fort of Bayana.

When second saka of chittor took place?

Bahadur Shah again attacked Mewar in 1534-35 AD. The second Sākā of Chittor took place in 1535. Rani Karmavati did Jauhar and saffron was done under the leadership of Bagh Singh of Devalia (Pratapgarh).

When third saka of chittor took place?

Akbar attacked Chittor in 1567-68 AD. In 1568 AD, the third Saka of Chittor took place. Jauhar was performed under the leadership of Phool Kanwar.

Who was Patta Chundawat?

It was a feudatory of Amet (Rajsamand). Amet was the first class place of Mewar.

6 thoughts on “History of Mewar: Ancient names, Guhila dynasty and inscriptions”

  1. It is a great knowledge share portion. I read very care fully and got so much good knowledge about Rajputs. We always respect their all patronises and respects for their country. They never tried to captured others area simultaneously they never allowed any body to take entries in their territory.
    Salute to All Ranas specially Rana Kumbha, Rana Sanga and Maharana Pratap Singh.

    1. Hi Malay,

      Thank you for taking the time to read this information and providing valuable feedback. It truly means a lot to us.

      The Rajputs have always been great. Personally, being a Jaat and living among Rajputs in Rajasthan, I’ve witnessed their greatness firsthand.

      At times, my Rajput friends might feel offended if they don’t receive the respect they deserve. However, when I do show them respect, they’re always willing to assist me and stand by my side in times of need, offering protection and support.

      Respect is all they ask for.

      Once again, I extend my gratitude to you and all the visitors to our website. Your visits fuel my motivation to share more content like this.

  2. It is a great knowledge share portion. I read very care fully and got so much good knowledge about Rajputs. We always respect their all patronises and respects for their country. They never tried to captured others area simultaneously they never allowed any body to take entries in their territory.
    Salute to All Ranas specially Rana Kumbha, Rana Sanga and Maharana Pratap Singh.

    1. Hi Malay,

      Thank you for taking the time to read this information and providing valuable feedback. It truly means a lot to us.

      The Rajputs have always been great. Personally, being a Jaat and living among Rajputs in Rajasthan, I’ve witnessed their greatness firsthand.

      At times, my Rajput friends might feel offended if they don’t receive the respect they deserve. However, when I do show them respect, they’re always willing to assist me and stand by my side in times of need, offering protection and support.

      Respect is all they ask for.

      Once again, I extend my gratitude to you and all the visitors to our website. Your visits fuel my motivation to share more content like this.

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