History of Bikaner

The ancient names of Bikaner were Jangaldesh and Ratighati. The capital of Jangaldesh was Ahichhatrapur. Rathore dynasty ruled in Bikaner.

Kings in Bikaner

Rao Bika of bikaner (1465-1504 AD)

  • In 1465 AD, due to the sarcasm of his father Jodha, Bika had won the Bikaner region with the help of his uncle Kandhal and younger brother Bida and with the blessings of Karni Mata. Karni Mata is the presiding deity of the Rathores of Bikaner.
  • Bika was declared the king in 1472 AD at Kodamdesar.
  • In 1488 AD, Bika established Bikaner. Akhatij (Akshaya Tritiya) is celebrated as the “Foundation Day” of Bikaner. Kites are flown in Bikaner on this day.
  • Bika attacked Rao Souza of Jodhpur, but Souza’s mother Jasmade (Jodha’s Hadi Rani) made a compromise, and got Bika the royal symbol.
    1. Idol of Nagnechi Mata
    2. Idol of Laxminath ji
    3. Hadabu Ji Ri Murthy

Construction works at Bika’s time

  • Got the Bhairav ​​temple constructed at Kodamdesar. This idol was brought from Bika Mandore.
  • The temple of Nagnechi Mata was built in Bikaner. (Idol with 18 hands).

Rao Lunkaran (1505 – 1526 AD)

  • With the blessings of Lok Sant Jasnath ji, he became the ruler.
  • He defeated Rawal Jaitsi of Jaisalmer.
  • In 1513 AD, Muhammad Khan of Nagaur was defeated.
  • In 1526 AD, he was killed fighting against Nawab Abimira of Narnaul in the battle of Dhosi.
  • ‘Bitu Suja’ has called Lunkaran the Karna of Kaliyug. Jayasom has also compared it to Karna.
  • Rao Lunkaran is also considered to be the creator of Lunkaransar Lake.

Rao Jaitsi (1526-1541 AD)

  • in 1527 AD, he sent his son Kalyanmal to help Rana Sanga in the battle of Khanwa.
  • Humayun’s brother Kamran was defeated in the battle of Ratighati in 1534 AD. The information about this war is available from Bithu Souza’s book Rao Jaitsi Ro Chhand. Kamran had earlier captured Bhatner (Hanumangarh).
  • The battle of Paheba (1541 AD) was fought between Rao Jaitsi and Maldev, the ruler of Marwar, in which Jaitsi attained martyrdom. Rao Jaitsi sent his minister Nagraj to get help from Shershah Suri during Maldev’s attack on Bikaner.

Rao Kalyanmal (1541 – 1574 AD)

  • In 1527, he led the army of Bikaner in the battle of Khanwa.
  • In 1544 AD, supported Shershah Suri in the battle of Giri Sumel, and after the war took over Bikaner.
  • Participated in Akbar’s Nagaur court in 1570 AD, and accepted Mughal subordination. He was the first ruler of Bikaner, who accepted Mughal suzerainty. Yuvraj Raisinghwan and Prithviraj Rathore also participated in this court. whom Akbar took with him.

Maharaja Raisingh (1574 – 1612 AD)

  • Akbar appointed him as the administrator of Jodhpur. (1572-1574 AD)
  • It was the mansabdar of Akbar and Jahangir. Akbar made it a mansabdar of 4000 but Jahangir increased it to 5000.
  • Ibrahim Mirza was defeated in the Battle of Katholi and helped Akbar in suppressing the Mirza rebellion in Gujarat and Hussain Mirza was killed by Raisingh.
  • In 1574 AD, Akbar sent Raisingh against Chandrasen. Raisingh had snatched Sojat from Chandrasen’s assistant Kalla Rathor (son of Chandrasen’s brother Ram) but he could not snatch Sivana from Patta Rathore. In 1576 AD, Shahbaz Khan had captured Siwana.
  • Raisingh had got Surtan of Sirohi and Taj Khan of Jalore to accept the submission of Akbar.
  • In 1577 AD, Akbar gifted 51 parganas to Raisingh.
  • During the rebellion of Khusro (elder son of Jahangir), Jahangir shifted the capital to Agra and Assigned the responsibility.
  • Under the supervision of Karamchand, Junagarh fort was built in Bikaner (1589-94 AD). The Raisingh Prashasti composed by Jain scholar Jaita is enshrined in this fort. Gajarudh statues of Jaimal and Patta are situated at the Surajpol gate of this fort.
  • Munshi Deviprasad called Raisingh as “Karna of Rajputana“.

Raisingh’s Books

  1. Raisingh Festival
  2. medical genealogy
  3. Jyotish Ratnamala
  4. Bal Bodhini (Commentary on Astrological Texts)

Court scholar

  • Jaisom – Karmchandavanshotkirnakamkavyam
  • In this book, Raisingh is called Rajendra. Rao Lunkaran has been compared to Karna in this book.

Prithviraj Rathore

  • He was the younger brother of Raisingh. Lived in Akbar’s court. Akbar had made it Gagaron.
    1. Veli Krishan Rukmani Ri
      • It is written in Dingle (Northern Rajasthani).
      • Dursa Adha had described this book as the 5th Veda and 19th Purana.
      • According to James Tod, this book has the power of 10,000 horses.
    2. Ganga tarang
    3. Dashrathvarout
    4. Dasham Bhagwat Ra Duha
  • LP Tessitori called Prithviraj Rathod the Horace of Dingle. He was a resident of Udine city of Italy.
  • Colonel Tod has written about him- ‘Prithviraj was the highest heroic person of his time and like the Western “Tubedar” princes, could advance the side of any work through his Ojaswini poetry and could also fight with a sword himself.

He composed two books named Bardic and Historical Survey of Rajputana and Grammar of Western Rajasthan. He did a critical study of Veli Krisan Rukmani Ri and Raab Jailsi Ro Chhand. He died in Bikaner in 1919 AD and his umbrella is located here only. Since 1982, an annual festival is organized every year in his memory. In the Bikaner Archives, a room was specially named after has been constructed.

Karan Singh (1631-1669 AD)

  • In 1644 AD, Amarsingh of Nagaur was defeated in a battle called “Matire Ri Raad“.
  • At the time of Aurangzeb’s Attock campaign, other states of Rajasthan gave Karan Singh the title of Jangaldhar Badshah. Rajasthani translation was done, so information about this title is available in this book. Later all the kings of Bikaner used this title.
  • Karna Singh, with the help of other scholars, wrote a book called “Sahitya Kalpadrum”

Court scholar

  • Gangadhar Maithili
    1. Karn Bhushan
    2. Kavya Dakini
  • Hosik Bhatt
    1. Karnavantas

Anoop Singh (1669-98 AD)

  • After winning South India, Aurangzeb gave it the title of “Mahi Maratib”. Later, Bikaner Maharaja Gaj Singh and Ratan Singh were also given this title by the Mughal emperors.
  • He collected idols of Hindu deities from South India, and got them installed in the temple of 33 crore deities in Bikaner. There is also an idol of Heramb Ganapati (Ganapati riding a lion).

In Mandore, Abhay Singh got 33 crore deities built.

  • Established Anoop Sanskrit Library in Bikaner. Kumbha’s music books were compiled here, and other Sanskrit books brought from South India were also kept here.

Books by Anoop Singh

  1. Anoop Vivek (Based on Tantrashastra)
  2. Kama Prabodha (Based on Kama Shastra)
  3. Shradh experiment Chintamani
  4. Anupodaya (Commentary on Gita Govinda)

Court scholar

  1. Bhav Bhatt
    • Sangeet Anoop Akush
    • Anoop Sangeet Vilas
    • Anoop Sangeet Ratnakar
  2. Garden Veerbhan :- Well of Kunwar Anopsingh
  3. Anant Bhatt :- Tirtha Ratnakar
  4. Udayachandra:- Panditya Darpan
  5. Various Sanskrit books were translated into Rajasthani.
    • Shukkarika (Joshirai translated it with the name Dampati Vinod)
    • Baital Pachisi
    • Geeta (It was translated by Anand Ram)

Surat Singh (1787 – 1828 AD)

  • In 1805, Bhatner was captured. This day was Tuesday, so the name of Bhatner was changed to Hanumangarh.
  • In 1814 AD, attacked Churu. At this time, “silver balls” were fired from the fort of Churu. At this time, Syoji Singh was the chieftain of Churu.
  • On March 21, 1818, he made a treaty with the British. Was an exorcist.
  • George Thomas attacked Bikaner twice during his reign.
  • He supported Jaipur Maharaja Jagat Singh II in the war of Gingoli.

Ratan Singh (1828 – 1851 AD)

  • In 1829 AD, Jaisalmer was defeated by Maharaja Gaj Singh in the battle of Basanpir (Jaisalmer). In 1835, an agreement was reached between the two with the mediation of Maharana Jawan Singh of Mewar. The British representative in this settlement was Trevelyan. Lieutenant Boileau described this settlement in his book “Personal narrative through western states of Rajwara”.
  • In 1837 AD, in Gaya (Bihar) “female slaughter” was banned.
  • The Ratna Bihari temple of the Vallabh sect was built in Bikaner.

Court scholar

  • Dayaldas :- Bikaner Ra Rathoda Ri Khyat
    1. This is the last famous book of Rajasthan.
    2. This book contains information about the kings of Bikaner from Bika to Sardar Singh.
    3. This book also has information about Rathods of Jodhpur.

Ganga Singh (1887-1943 AD)

  • In 1899, the “Boxer Rebellion” was suppressed in China. That’s why the British gave the China War Medal.
  • In 1899 AD, The British gave it the title of “Kesar-e-Hind” because of its successful management of the severe famine known as Chhappaniya Famine.
  • In 1913 AD, Praja Pratinidhi Sabha was established.
  • In 1916, BHU Madan Mohan Malviya received the most financial award for the establishment of Help was given.
  • He made an army of camels which was called “Ganga Risala“. Ganga Risala participated in the first and second world wars. At the time of World War I, he was elected as the only black member of the British Cabinet.
  • In 1919 AD, Participated in the “Paris Peace Conference“. While returning from here, he sent his famous “Rome Note” to the British and demanded self-government for India.
  • In 1921 AD, Governor General Chelmsford formed the “Chambers of Princes” and Ganga Singh was made its Chancellor (1921 – 25 AD).
  • In 1927, “Gang Canal” (the first canal of Rajasthan) was constructed. That’s why Ganga Singh is called “Bhagirath” of Rajasthan. The engineer of Ganga Canal was Kanvarsen. It was inaugurated by the then Governor General Lord Irwin at Shivpuri Head.
  • Ganga Singh participated in all the three Round Table Conferences held in London. (1930, 1931, 1932 AD)
  • Built the Lalgarh Palace in Bikaner in the memory of his father Lal Singh. The present form of the temples of Ramdevra (Jaisalmer), Deshnok (Bikaner) and Gogamedi (Hanumangarh) were built by Gangasingh.
  • Got Victoria Empres (Queen Victoria) written on the coins of Bikaner.

Mewar Maharana Swaroop Singh got “Dosti London” written on coins.

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