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History of Chauhans in Rajasthan

History of Chauhans in Rajasthan: Chauhans of Ajmer

Origin of Chauhans

Here are some popular theories, how Origin of Chauhans took place –

  1. Fire pit theory
    • According to Chandbardai’s book Prithviraj Raso, four Rajput castes were born from the fire pit of Abu Yagya of Rishi Vashishtha.
      • Chauhan
      • Chalukya (Solanki)
      • Parmar
      • Pratihar
    • Muhannot Nainasi and Suryamall Misan also supported this theory.
    • In the present scientific era, this theory not only seems unscientific but also artificial. It might have been that the Kshatriyas, who had given up violence under the influence of Buddhism and Jainism.This story may have been used to warn against external attacks, or some tribal chieftains or foreign warriors may have been initiated into the fire and included among the Kshatriyas.
  2. Suryavanshi – Prithviraj Vijay, Hammir Mahakavya, Hammir Rasas etc. texts and Historian Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha considers them to be Suryavanshi. The inscription of Vigraharaja IV also declares him to be Suryavanshi, which is kept in the Rajputana Museum of Ajmer.
  3. Chandravanshi The Yesi (Haryana) inscription of Chandravanshi Prithviraj II and the Achaleshwar temple inscription of Mount Abu describe them as Chandravanshi.
  4. Brahmin – Chauhans have been described as Brahmins in Bijolia (Bhilwara) inscription, Chandravati inscription and Kayamkhan Raso text. On the basis of Bijauliyan inscription, Dr. Dashrath Sharma has also called Chauhans as Brahmins. Line marked ‘Vipra Shrivatsgotrebhuta’ Confirms this idea. However, this opinion also cannot be completely true because often kings adopt the Gotra of their priest.
  5. Foreigners – James Todd has considered the Chauhans as foreigners and has drawn similarity on the basis of the rituals and customs of the Central Asian race Shaka (Scythian). William Crook and Dr. Smith have also accepted this opinion. Dr. Ojha has described the similarity of such rituals as superficial and said that the rituals like costumes, profession, sun worship, fire and animal worship, worship of weapons, performance of Yagya, Sati practice, drinking etc. are common to Rajputs and Central Asia. The reasons for similarity are visible among the castes. They are symbols of the propagation of Aryan culture in those countries, and not of its origin.
  6. In Raipal’s Sevadi inscription, Chauhans were described as descendants of Indra.

Bijolia inscription (1170 AD)

  • It is situated in the Parshvanath temple of Bijolia. Which was written by Digambar Jain Lolak in memory of the construction of the temple and the pond.
  • In this, information about the genealogy of Chauhans of Sambhar and Ajmer is available.
  • According to this, Chauhan king Vasudev constructed “Saabhar Lake” and made Nagaur his capital. In this inscription, Samant Chauhan, a descendant of Vasudev, has been described as a Vatsa Gautriya Brahmin. Information is received about Vigraharaja IV’s conquest of Delhi.
  • Information is available about Jain and Shaiva pilgrimages around the Kutila river flowing in this area. Information is available about land grants (Dohli) given to temples.
  • This record gives information about the administrative division of the state. ex. Country → Port → Town → Palli → Village
  • The larger unit of the village was called Pratigan. The head of the village was called Mahattar and the head of Pratigan was called Parigrahi. Similarly, names of administrative officers named Samant and Bhukti are found in it.
  • This inscription gives information about the ancient names of various cities of Rajasthan. Like –
    • Vijayavalli (Bijolia)
    • Shrimal (Bhinmal)
    • Mandalkar (Mandalgarh)
    • Ahichchhatrapur (Nagaur)
    • Jabalipur (Jalore)
    • Nagahrid (Nagda)
    • Naddul (Nadaul)
    • Uttamadri (Uparmal)
    • Shakambhari (Sambhar)
    • Dhillika (Delhi)
  • The author of this article was Gunabhadra, writer Kayastha Keshav, engraver Govind.
  • There is also another inscription near this inscription. On which the book Uttam Shikhar Purana written by Siddhasuri is engraved.

Inscription of Vigraharaja IV

  • This inscription has been obtained from Saraswati Kanthabharan Temple of Ajmer. Which is now safe in Rajputana Museum.
  • In this inscription, four main things have been said about the original man and dynasty of Chauhans –
    • The first man of Chauhans was born in the Malav dynasty.
    • The first man of the Chauhans was born in the Ikshvaku clan of the Surya dynasty.
    • The first man of Chauhans was born in the lineage of Kush, the younger son of Lord Rama.
    • The progenitor of the Chauhans was Chahamana.

Place of origin of Chauhans

  • The starting place of Chauhans was from Anant Pradesh (area near Sikar) to Pushkar (Ajmer).
  • According to Ramkarna Asopa, because of living around Sambhar Lake, these Chahamanas Called.
  • Thus, the main part of the Chauhan kingdom was Sapadalaksha (the area around Sambhar Lake) and their capital was Ahichchhatrapur (Nagaur).

Chauhan Kings in Rajasthan

Vasudev

  • He was the founder of Chauhan state. According to Rajashekhar’s Prabandhakkosh, it started in 551 AD. Chauhan state was established in Sapadalaksha. According to the Bijolia inscription, he constructed the Sambhar Lake.

Goovak I

  • Initially the Chauhans were feudatories of the Pratihars. Guvak I was given the title of Veer in the court of Pratihar king Nagabhatta II. Later, Guvak I refused to accept the subordination of Pratihar king Nagabhatta II. Thus Guvak I was the first independent Chauhan king.

Chandanraj

  • Its queen Atmaprabha (Rudrani) was a devotee of Shiva, and used to worship Lord Shiva by lighting 1000 lamps in Pushkar Lake. She was a woman skilled in yogic activities.

Vakpatiraj

  • He was the winner of 108 wars.
  • His son Lakshmanraj/Lakshmansingh (Lakhansi) founded Nadaul (Pali). New Chauhan state in (Pali) Established. (950 AD)

Vigraharaja Second

  • He defeated the Chalukya king Mularaja I of Gujarat, and built the temple of his family goddess Ashapura Mata in Bhadonch.

Govind III

  • According to Muslim writer Firishta, it prevented the king of Ghazni from crossing Marwar.
  • In Prithviraj Vijay, its title is Vaarighat, which means the one who kills the enemies.

Ajayraj (1105-1133 AD)

  • Established Ajmer in 1113 AD and made it his capital. Got a fort built here.
  • It issued silver and copper coins (Ajayapriya Dramma). He got the name of his queen Somalekha (Somal Devi) written on the coins.
  • He had defeated Garjan Matango.
  • He presided over the debate between Digambara and Shwetambar scholars.
  • He had gifted a golden pot to the Parshvanath temple.
  • In his last moments, he handed over the rule to his son Arnoraj and went to Pushkaranya.

Arnoraj (1133 – 1155 AD)

  • Defeated the Turks in Ajmer in 1135 AD, and to purify the battlefield Anasagar Lake was constructed by blocking the Chandra River of Pushkaranya.
  • Varaha temple was constructed in Pushkar.
  • He defeated King Naravarman of Malwa.
  • He defeated the Chalukya king Siddharaja Jai ​​Singh of Gujarat, and married his daughter Kanchan Devi.
  • It was defeated by the Chalukya king Kumarapala of Gujarat, and was transferred to his daughter.Jalhandevi had to be married to Kumarpal. This time Kumarpal won Ajmer Went to Chittor after.
  • There were scholars named Devbodh and Dharmaghosh in the court of Arnoraj.
  • He had given land grants to Jains of Khartargachha sect.
  • He was murdered by his son Jaggdev.

Vigraharaja IV (1153-63 AD)

  • Jaggadev became the ruler by killing his father Arnoraj but after deposing him, his younger brother Vigraharaja IV becomes the ruler.
  • According to Dr. Dashrath Sharma, its reign was during the period of Chauhans of Ajmer/Sapadlaksh.It was the golden period.
  • He defeated the Tomar king of Dhillika (Delhi). This information is obtained from Bijolia inscription. He defeated the Chalukya king Kumar Pal of Gujarat and took control over his subordinate areas like Jalore, Pali, Nadaul, Chittor etc.
  • He got the “Delhi Shivalik Pillar” installed. In fact, this inscription has been engraved on the Topra (Haryana) pillar inscription of Ashoka, which was later installed in Ferozeshah Kotla (Delhi). In this inscription, Vigraharaja IV Tughlaq declares that I have eliminated the Muslims from Aryavarta and my successors should also confine them to the Attock River.
  • Established the city of Bisalpur (Tonk) and constructed a pond and Shiva temple (Gokarneshwar) here.
  • He wrote a play named Harakeli which was based on Bharavi’s Kiratarjuniyam play.
  • Established a Sanskrit school named Saraswati Kanthabharan and Saraswati Temple in Ajmer. In the inscription of Vigraharaja IV obtained from here, Chauhans have been described as Suryavasins.
  • Its court scholar Somdev wrote a book named Lalit Vigraharaja in which there is a love story of Vigraharaja and princess Desaldevi of Indrapuri. This book also describes the defeat of Khusroshah, the ruler of Ghazni, by Vigraharaja IV.
  • In the Sanskrit school, the lines “Harakeli” and “Lalit Vigraharaja” were engraved on the walls.
  • Qutubuddin Aibak converted this Sanskrit school into a mosque. Which is called “dhai din ka jhopada”. Here, Pir Punjabshah’s Urs is held for two and a half days.
  • At the behest of Dharmaghosh Suri, Vigraharaja IV had banned animals on the day of Ekadashi.

Titles

  1. Bisaldev
  2. Kavibandhu
  3. Kilhorn has also praised his scholarship and acknowledged that he was one of those Hindu rulers who could compete with Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti.

Apergangya

  • He was the son of Vigraharaja IV but was deposed by Jaggadev’s son Prithviraj II.

Prithviraj II

  • In the Yeshi inscription of Prithviraj II of 1167 AD, Chauhans have been described as Chandravanshi. He appointed his maternal uncle Guhil Kilhan in Yesi and got a palace built in Yesi.
  • The inscription obtained from the Ruthi Rani temple of Dhaud village (Bhilwara) of 1168 gives information that Prithviraj II had gained the kingdom by his muscle power. In this inscription, the name of its queen has been mentioned as Suhav Devi.
  • He built Suheshwar Shiva temple in Mainal (Bhilwara).

Someshwar

  • He was the son of Kanchanadevi, the Chalukya queen of Arnoraj. Therefore, his childhood was spent in the court of Siddharaj Jai Singh and Kumar Pal in his maternal home, Gujarat.
  • He had killed Kumarpal’s enemy Konkan king Mallikarjuna in the war.
  • At the time of Konkan conquest, he married Karpuri Devi, the princess of Chedi king Achalraj Kalachuri.
  • According to the Bijolia inscription, he had donated a village named Revana to the temple and in this inscription his name is also found as Pratap Lankeshwar.
  • He built a huge temple of Vaidyanath in Ajmer in which idols of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh were installed.
  • He built five temples in Ajmer which were called Panch Kalpavriksha.
  • He had also installed statues of his father Arnoraj and himself.

Prithviraj III (1177-92 AD)

  • Father – Someshwar
  • Mother – Karpuri Devi (daughter of Achalraj, ruler of Kalachuri dynasty of Chedi country)
  • He became king at the age of 11 years. Hence his mother Karpuri Devi became his protector. Karpuri Devi managed the administration for one year with the help of her capable ministers.
  • Chief Ministers:- Kaimas, Bhuvanmall, Skanda, Vaman, Sodha.
  • After one year, Prithviraj took over the administration.
  • Suppressed the rebellion of his cousins ​​Apargangya and Nagarjuna. Nagarjuna had rebelled with Gurgaon as his centre. Devbhatta was the commander of Nagarjuna.
  • 1182 AD The revolt of the Bhandanak tribe in Hisar and Gurugram (Haryana) areas was suppressed in Pressed. This information is available from the writings of Jinapati Suri. Bhandanak Tribe Earlier it used to live in Sutlej region of Punjab, but now in Mathura, Bharatpur, Alwar, areas was creating nuisance.

Battle of Mahoba / Tumul War – 1182 AD

Prithviraj v/s Parmardidev Chandel (Mahoba)
  • Reason – Parmardidev Chandel had killed the injured soldiers of Prithviraj.
  • Prithviraj won, and appointed Pajunrai as the administrator of Mahoba. Paramardidev, the brave commander of Chandela, attained martyrdom while fighting in the battle of Alha and Udal.

Battle of Nagaur – 1184 AD

Prithviraj v/s Bhima II Chalukya (Gujarat)
  • Reason :-
    1. Both wanted to marry Ichchivi Devi, the princess of Abu. But Prithviraj had married her.
    2. The borders of both the states met in Nadaul, and both the kings wanted to expand the empire.
  • Jagdev Pratihar had made a treaty between them.

Chauhan-Gahdwal dispute

Prithviraj Chauhan v/s Jaichand (Kannauj)
  • Reason :-
    1. Succession to Delhi.
    2. Policy of empire expansion.
    3. Help given by Jaichand to Chandelas.
    4. Prithviraj had kidnapped Jaichand’s daughter Sanyogita and married her.(This love story has been accepted by Dashrath Sharma as a historical fact.Gopinath Sharma and C.V. Vaidya also accepted this).

First battle of Tarain: 1191 AD

Prithviraj v/s Gauri (Ghazni)
  • Reason :- Gauri captured Tabar Hind (Bhatinda) and appointed Qazi Ziauddin as the administrator.
  • Prithviraj Chauhan won. Govindraj Tomar of Delhi had injured Gauri. Qazi Ziauddin was arrested and he was released after taking the money.

Second battle of Tarain: 1192 AD

  • Gauri won. Prithviraj Chauhan was named Saraswati near Sirsa (Haryana) was arrested from the spot.
  • According to Hasan Nizami, Prithviraj Chauhan ruled under Gauri for some days. Hasan Nizami’s book – “Taj ul Maasir”.
Reasons for the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the Tarain war:-
  1. Prithviraj Chauhan had disputes with his neighboring states. Therefore any king did not help him against Gauri.
  2. In the second battle of Tarain, Prithviraj Chauhan’s army was less than Gauri’s army and most of his generals were busy in other wars. Like – Skut and Udayraj – did not participate in this war, and Someshwar had joined Gauri.
  3. After the first battle of Tarain, Prithviraj Chauhan gave Gauri enough time to prepare for the war.
  4. Gauri was a good commander, and he defeated Prithviraj Chauhan with his diplomacy.
  5. The Turkish army used horses while the Rajputs used elephants.
  6. Turkey used lighter weapons than Rajputs.
Importance/impact/results of Tarain war:-
  1. After the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan, it became easier for Gauri’s successors to rule India.
  2. The budding political ambitions of the Rajputs ended, and no Rajput king after Prithviraj Chauhan was able to take control of Delhi.
  3. After the second battle of Tarain, the process of foreign rule over India started which continued till 1947.
  4. Due to the rule of Turks, there were positive and negative effects on Indian culture.
  • Positive impact :-
    1. Indo-Islamic common culture emerged in India. Whose effects were seen on architecture, painting and music.
    2. Sufi and Bhakti movements started in India.
  • Negative effects :-
    1. Turkish invaders destroyed Hindu temples and Buddhist monasteries. Due to which Hindu and Buddhist culture declined.
    2. After 1200 AD, Buddhist culture almost disappeared from India.

Cultural achievements of Prithviraj Chauhan:-

  • Established the Department of Art and Culture. Minister – Padmanabha
  • Built “Pithora Garh” near Delhi.

Court Scholar:-

  • Chandrabardai (Prithvibhatta) – Prithviraj Raas
  • Jayanak – Prithviraj Vijay
  • Vagishwar Janardhan
  • Vishav Roop
  • Vidyapati Gaur
  • Aashadhar

Prithviraj Chauhan’s evaluation:-

  • Prithviraj Chauhan is accused of being an immature commander and a short-sighted king, but this allegation is not true, because before the second battle of Tarain, he had not faced defeat in any war. Therefore he cannot be called an immature commander.
  • Not attacking the fleeing army and forgiving the enemy when he apologized were the ideals of the Hindu culture of that time. And Prithviraj Chauhan was also following his same ideals. Although his defeat paved the way for India’s slavery, still its importance in medieval history cannot be ignored.

Prithviraj Chauhan’s titles :-

  1. Raipithora
  2. Dalpungal

12 thoughts on “History of Chauhans in Rajasthan: Chauhans of Ajmer”

  1. A person necessarily lend a hand to make significantly posts I would state. This is the very first time I frequented your web page and up to now? I surprised with the analysis you made to make this particular post incredible. Fantastic activity!

  2. A person necessarily lend a hand to make significantly posts I would state. This is the very first time I frequented your web page and up to now? I surprised with the analysis you made to make this particular post incredible. Fantastic activity!

  3. What a foolish comment you guys have made about Prithviraj Chauhan’s height. I must say your knowledge of history is zero. And who told you that average height at his time was 5 feet. Don’t publish false things about history. First educate yourself then say anything. Disgusting!!

    1. Hey there,

      Thanks for sharing your thoughts! I completely understand your surprise – historical facts can vary widely. From our research, Prithviraj Chauhan’s height is estimated to be around 5.78 feet, close to six feet, assessed partly through the gear he used, including his armor, weaponry like swords and spears, and even references in ancient texts and depictions of his time.

      Some historical evidences also says 100 angul (5.9 – 5.11 inches) of height.

      5 Feet was considered a normal height at that time and comparing Prithviraj Chauhan’s estimated height to it proves height’s role in his bravery.

      Indeed, a warrior’s greatness is far more than just their height – it’s about their courage and valor. Prithviraj Chauhan exemplified this through his remarkable bravery, notably evident in his 16 triumphant battles against Gazni. His legacy as a legendary and revered king remains unparalleled.

      For more insight, you might find this link helpful: https://studentera.in/questions/question/q-what-was-the-height-of-prithviraj-chauhan/

      Thank you once again for engaging in this fascinating historical discussion!

  4. What a foolish comment you guys have made about Prithviraj Chauhan’s height. I must say your knowledge of history is zero. And who told you that average height at his time was 5 feet. Don’t publish false things about history. First educate yourself then say anything. Disgusting!!

    1. Hey there,

      Thanks for sharing your thoughts! I completely understand your surprise – historical facts can vary widely. From our research, Prithviraj Chauhan’s height is estimated to be around 5.78 feet, close to six feet, assessed partly through the gear he used, including his armor, weaponry like swords and spears, and even references in ancient texts and depictions of his time.

      Some historical evidences also says 100 angul (5.9 – 5.11 inches) of height.

      5 Feet was considered a normal height at that time and comparing Prithviraj Chauhan’s estimated height to it proves height’s role in his bravery.

      Indeed, a warrior’s greatness is far more than just their height – it’s about their courage and valor. Prithviraj Chauhan exemplified this through his remarkable bravery, notably evident in his 16 triumphant battles against Gazni. His legacy as a legendary and revered king remains unparalleled.

      For more insight, you might find this link helpful: https://studentera.in/questions/question/q-what-was-the-height-of-prithviraj-chauhan/

      Thank you once again for engaging in this fascinating historical discussion!

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