Ranthambore was ruled by the Chauhan dynasty. Here’s the History of Chauhans’ in Rajasthan.
Here’s the info. about mighty Chauhan Kings of Ranthambore
- He was the son of Prithviraj Chauhan.
- Establishes independent Chauhan state in Ranthambore in 1194 AD. (Earlier he accepted the subjugation of the Turks and became the ruler of Ajmer, but his uncle Hariraj deposed him. Hariraj sent his commander Chatraraj to attack Delhi, but he also had to face defeat.)
- Its successors were Valhan, Prahladan and Veeranarayan respectively, Chiranarayan fought the army of Iltutmish, in which he died. After Veeranarayan, Vagabhatta also protected his ancestral kingdom from the Turkish officers sent from Delhi. During the time of Vagabhata, Nasiruddin had conducted a military campaign here, but he could not capture Ranthambore. After that, Vagbhatta’s son Jetrasingh became the ruler of Ranthambore. Who did not allow Parman, Kachhap and Muslims to succeed in wars and maintained the prestige of his dynasty.
Hammir (1282 – 1301 AD)
- His father Jaitra Singh had crowned Hammir during his reign. After becoming the ruler, Hammir followed the Digvijay policy, and defeated Samar Singh of Chittor, Bhoj Parmar of Dhar, Arjun of Bhimras, Pratap Singh of Abu. He collected taxes from Mandalgarh and made the ruler of Tribhuvan Giri accept his subordination, and also accepted his suzerainty over areas like Vardhanpur, Pushkar, Champa etc. Its kingdom included areas like Shivpur (Gwalior), Balban (Kota), Shakambhari etc.
- After this Digvijay campaign, Hammir organized Koti Yagya whose priest was Vishwaroop.
- In 1290 AD, Jalaluddin Khilji attacked Ranthambore, but he could capture only Jhain Fort (the key to Ranthambore), but as soon as he returned to Delhi, Hammir captured it again.
- Even in 1292 AD, Hammir had foiled the attack of Jalaluddin Khilji. Jalaluddin Khilji had said, “I do not consider such ten fourts equal to a Muslim’s hair”. Amir Khusro has described this invasion in his book “Mifta-ul-Futuh”.
Alauddin Khilji V/S Hammir
Reasons for conflict:
- Imperialist policy of Alauddin Khilji.
- Ranthambore Fort was situated on the important trade route from Delhi to Gujarat and Malwa.
- Due to the strong strategic position of Ranthambore, Alauddin was able to conquer it and wanted to establish control over Rajput states.
- Hammir had defeated 2 attacks of Jalaluddin Khilji, hence Alauddin Khilji wanted to take revenge for this.
- Hammir gave shelter to two rebel Mongol generals of Alauddin Khilji, Muhammad Shah and Kehbru.
In 1299 AD, Alauddin Khilji appointed Nusrat Khan, Ulugh Khan and Alap Khan as commanders and sent them to attack Ranthambore. At this time they took control of Jhain and changed its name to Naushahr. At this time, Hammir sent Munivrat Dharamsingh and Bhimsingh along with the army to Jhain. He forced the Turkish army to retreat but the Turks suddenly attacked the Hinduwat valley and Bhim Singh died.
Hammir removed Dharam Singh and appointed Bhoj to his post, but later this post was again given to Dharam Singh, hence Bhoj went to the Sultan, and Dharam Singh imposed new taxes on the public to avenge his insult. So that Hammir can be made unpopular. These administrative changes will be harmful in future proved.
Alauddin sent Ulug Khan and Nusrat Khan to attack again, but Nusrat Khan was killed in this attack, so the Sultan himself came to Ranthambore.
- Due to the betrayal of Ratipal and Ranmal, Hammir had to perform Saka in Ranthambore in 1301 AD. This was the first Saka of Rajasthan. Queen Rangdevi of Hammir performed Jauhar. Amir Khusro has described this Jauhar in his book ‘Khazain-ul-Futuh’. This is the first description of Jauhar in Persian language. Under the leadership of Hammir, saffron was done.
- On 11 July 1301 AD, Alauddin Khilji captured Ranthambore. And he handed over Ranthambore to Ulugh Khan.
- Amir Khusro had said that “Today the house of Kufra has become the house of Islam”.
- This was Hammir’s daughter. He had committed suicide by weaving in Padam Pond. (Water Jauhar)
Hammir’s cultural achievements
- 32 pillars of Chhatri in Ranthambore to commemorate the 32-year rule of his father Jaitra Singh got an constructed.
- Hammir’s book – Sringaar Haar
- Raghavdev (Guru of Hammir)
- Hammir is accused of increasing taxes and waging war for stubbornness. But he can be acquitted of these charges. Because taxes were increased at a time when the war was going on and more money was needed for the war. This was done by all the kings. Hammir had never increased taxes before.
- Protecting the refugees was the ideal of the Hindu culture of that time and Hammir was also following the same ideal.
- His bravery and spirit of sacrificing everything to save the refugees is not only unforgettable but also makes him stand in the first line.
- It has been rightly said about Hammir –
सिंह गमन, सत्पुरूष वचन, कदली फलै इक बार।– दोहा
तिरिया तेल, हम्मीर हठ, चढ़ें न दूजी दूजी बार।।
It means –
- A lion gives birth to a child only once.
- True people say things only once.
- Banana bears fruit only once.
- Oil and ointment are applied to the woman only once.
- Hammir Dev Chauhan’s stubbornness has been a symbol of his fearlessness. They do not think twice about what they decide.
- Nayanchandra Suri – Hammir epic
- Jodhraj – Hammir Raso
- Sarangdhar – Hammir Rasau
- Chandrashekhar – Hammir Hatha
- Amrit Kailash – Hammir Bandhan
- Bhandau Vyasa – Hammirayana